The aim of this paper is to describe how a dynamic mechanical analyser can be used together with the microwave coaxial line
technique. This coupling enables the simultaneous recording of changes in the mechanical properties and moisture content of
materials as a function of time or temperature at a selected frequency. The sample is placed either directly under the probe
or clamped in the sample holder of the dynamic mechanical analyser. Sample positioning and heating is accurately controlled
by the mechanical analyser and its temperature controller. Samples can be subjected to a constant static force, a frequency
or both. A micro probe, recently designed for measurements on semi-rigid and rigid surfaces , and connected to a network
analyser was used to monitor the moisture content of the samples.
A description is given of modifications to a dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA) to allow controlled relative humidity (RH) experiments to be performed under isothermal or thermal scanning conditions. Free film samples of polyester melamine paints
(under-cured, normal-cured and over-cured) were supplied and the viscoelastic properties measured in the tensile mode of the
DMA. A reduction in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of up to 10C was found as the controlled RH was increased.
Authors:B. Ormsby, G. Foster, T. Learner, S. Ritchie, and M. Schilling
Issues encountered with dynamic mechanical analysis of artists’ acrylic emulsion paint films are presented alongside modifications
to improve controlled relative humidity (RH) experiments using isothermal and thermal scanning conditions. Free films of titanium
white (PW6) artists’ acrylic emulsion paints were cast as free films and their viscoelastic properties measured using the
tensile mode of the dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA). Artists’ acrylic emulsion paints are within their glass transition
temperature region at room temperature and are highly responsive to changes in ambient temperature and relative humidity,
hence controlling relative humidity during analysis is vital to the successful analysis of these paints.
Authors:B. Ormsby, G. Foster, T. Learner, S. Ritchie, and M. Schilling
After improvements were made to a modified Polymer Labs MkIII DMTA instrument to facilitate repeatable controlled humidity
(RH) experiments using isothermal and thermal scanning conditions, the viscoelastic properties of titanium white pigmented
artists’ acrylic emulsion films were measured in tensile mode. The effects of temperature, relative humidity and accelerated
ageing regimes on two brands of titanium white paints were explored. These paints are highly responsive to changes in temperature
and relative humidity, formulation differences affect properties slightly, and while light ageing had a negligible effect,
thermal ageing resulted in decreased storage modulus and increased film density.
Authors:M. Odlyha, N. Cohen, R. Campana, and G. Foster
This paper describes the results and conclusions of research directed towards the development and evaluation of a chemical
sensor which would provide information on the quality of indoor environments surrounding cultural objects. In our case these
objects were paintings housed in major European galleries and the main objective is their preservation through an improved
understanding of their microenvironment. The concept was to prepare and expose test tempera paintings which would behave as
dosimeters and integrate the environmental response at these locations. Artificial ageing of similar samples was performed
to provide a means of calibrating the test paintings. Samples from the test paintings were compared with artificially aged
samples and this enabled the sites to be ranked in terms of their suitability for exposure of cultural objects.
Additionally, novel methodology involving piezoelectric sensors was designed for monitoring the relative humidity and temperature
of the microenvironment of paintings. Dielectric techniques were also used for measuring the effect of relative humidity fluctuations
on artists' materials and novel non-invasive dielectric techniques in the microwave region were used for the determination
of their moisture content.
Authors:M. Odlyha, G. Foster, S. Hackney, and J. Townsend
The use of non-aqueous deacidification procedures as a preventive conservation measure to assist in retarding the deterioration
of painting canvases has been suggested by the Conservation Department of the Tate Gallery . The reverse sides of paintings
are treated with commercially available MMC solution (methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate). The aim of this paper is to describe
how dynamic mechanical thermal analysis can be used to evaluate the effects of this treatment. Measurements are described
on modern commercially primed canvas samples  which show that the MMC treatment does cause an increase in the modulus or
stiffness of the primed canvas materials but that the effect on theTg is minimal. The response of the treated materials to variations in relative humidity has also been studied and indications
are that the response of treated canvases to variations in relative humidity differs from those of the untreated canvases.
Authors:M. Odlyha, G. Foster, N. Cohen, and R. Larsen
A description is given how the dielectric coaxial technique measuring in the microwave region has been used for monitoring drying processes in leather samples. It is also shown how the coupling of this technique together with dynamic mechanical analysis enables the simultaneous recording of changes inthe dielectric properties, related to the moisture content of the material, together with the mechanical properties as a function of time or temperature. The samples studied include unaged and artificially aged goat and calf leathers. Measurements using the dynamic mechanical analyser are presented over a range of temperature which includes the shrinkage temperature. During the drying process, values of mechanical modulus or displacement and dielectric permittivity are recorded as a function of time or temperature which includes the temperature range of leather shrinkage, and from previous research report of Larsen  this has been associated with the chemical state of the leather samples.
Authors:M. Odlyha, N. Cohen, G. Foster, A. Aliev, E. Verdonck, and D. Grandy
DMA and solid state 13C NMR techniques were used to measure historical parchment samples within the framework of the project (MAP) Micro Analysis
of Parchment (EC contract No. SMT4-96-2101) in collaboration with the School of Conservation in Copenhagen. DMA was used in
both thermal scan and creep modes. Thermal scans provided information on the transitions associated with the collagen polymer.
Microthermal analysis was also used to obtain information on the topography and thermal conductivity of sample areas of 100
μm. Localised heating enabled measurements of softening transitions in the sample. This behaviour is influenced by the chemical
composition of parchment. 13C NMR provided information on the carbon atoms associated with the polypeptide chains of the collagen
in parchment. The behaviour of samples immersed in water and measured in DMA creep mode was used to measure the shrinkage
behaviour of the parchment samples. The different but complementary techniques provided a means for characterising the physicochemical
state of parchment samples.