Authors:Eszter László, P. Kiss, Gabriella Horváth, P. Szakály, Andrea Tamás and Dóra Reglődi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP ) is a multifunctional neuropeptide occurring in the nervous system as well as in the peripheral organs. Beneficial action of PACAP has been shown in different pathological processes. The strong protective effects of the peptide are probably due to its complex modulatory actions in antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. In the kidney, PACAP is protective in models of diabetic nephropathy, myeloma kidney injury, cisplatin-, gentamycin- and cyclosporin-induced damages. Numerous studies have been published describing the protective effect of this peptide in renal ischemia/reperfusion. The present review focuses on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury and gives a brief summary about the results published in this area.
Authors:Gabriella Fábián, B. Tombor, Ildikó Németh, Emese Kicsi G., Margit Szikszay, Gyöngyi Horváth and Mária Szűcs
Morphine was provided to rats in drinking water for 21 days. Profound analgesic tolerance was detected both in hot-plate and tail-flick tests. The density of [3H]DAMGO binding sites increased by 76% in spinal cord membranes due to morphine exposure compared to those in opioid naive animals. Slightly augmented [3H]DAMGO binding was measured in the synaptic plasma membranes, with a concomitant decrease in the microsomal membranes, of morphine tolerant/dependent brains. These observations suggest that the regulation of spinal mu opioid receptors might be different from those in the brain. It is emphasized that the molecular changes underlying tolerance/dependence are influenced by several factors, such as the tissue or subcellular fractions used, besides the obvious importance of the route of drug administration. Results obtained after voluntary morphine intake further support the growing number of experimental data that chronic morphine does not internalize/downregulate the mu opioid receptors in the central nervous system.
Authors:Markus M. Heimesaat, Gernot Reifenberger, Viktoria Vicena, Anita Illes, Gabriella Horvath, Andrea Tamas, Balazs D. Fulop, Stefan Bereswill and Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypetide (PACAP) constitutes a neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the host exerting essential cytoprotective properties, whereas PACAP−/− mice display increased susceptibility to distinct immunopathological conditions. The orchestrated interplay between the gut microbiota and the host is pivotal in immune homeostasis and resistance to disease. Potential pertubations of the intestinal microbiota in PACAP−/− mice, however, have not been addressed so far. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota composition in PACAP−/− and wildtype (WT) mice starting 2 weeks postpartum until 18 months of age applying quantitative culture-independent techniques. Fecal enterobacteria and enterococci were lower in PACAP−/− than WT mice aged 1 month and ≥6 months, respectively. Whereas Mouse Intestinal Bacteroides were slightly higher in PACAP−/− versus WT mice aged 1 and 6 months, this later in life held true for Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. (≥12 months) and lactobacilli (>15 months of age). Strikingly, health-beneficial bifidobacteria were virtually absent in the intestines of PACAP−/− mice, even when still breastfed. In conclusion, PACAP deficiency is accompanied by distinct changes in fecal microbiota composition with virtually absent bifidobacteria as a major hallmark that might be linked to increased susceptibility to disease.