This study was conducted to assess the effects of 2,4-epibrassionolide (EBR) on mold decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer and its capability to activate biochemical defense reactions in postharvest peaches. The treatment of EBR at 5 μM possessed the optimum effectiveness on inhibiting the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit among all treatments. The EBR treatment significantly up-regulated the expression levels of a set of defense-related enzymes and PR genes that included PpCHI, PpGns1, PpPAL, PpNPR1, PpPR1 and PpPR4 as well as led to an enhancement for biosynthesis of phenolics and lignins in peaches during the incubation at 20 °C. Interestingly, the EBR-treated peaches exhibited more striking expressions of PR genes and accumulation of antifungal compounds upon inoculation with the pathogen, indicating a priming defense could be activated by EBR. On the other hand, 5 μM EBR exhibited direct toxicity on fungal proliferation of R. stolonifer in vitro. Thus, we concluded that 5 μM EBR inhibited the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit probably by a direct inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and an indirect induction of a priming resistance. These findings provided a potential alternative for control of fungal infection in peaches during the postharvest storage.
Authors:W.M. Du, F.H. Wang, H.Y. Zhang, B.Z. Jiang, X.Y. Chen, W. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Z.T. Sheng
Present research on prebiotics focuses on either polysaccharides or polyphenols. This study compared the individual and combined impact of polysaccharide, quercetin, and gallic acid (GA) treatment on three human faecal strains. In vitro pure culturing and correlation analysis confirmed that the growth of both beneficial microbe B. longum subsp. longum (0.695, 0.205: R2, slope, respectively) and pathogenic C. perfringens (0.712, 0.085: R2, slope, respectively) increased due to polysaccharide treatment, and only GA treatment would inhibit C. perfringens (0.789, –0.165: R2, slope, respectively) growth. In vivo studies also revealed that genome copies of Bifidobacterium increased and C. perfringens decreased in the faeces, when a blend of the three nutrients rather than single polysaccharide or polyphenols were fed to rats. These data suggested that combined prebiotic treatment improved human faecal strain composition better than single treatment.
Authors:Y.H. Xu, T. Li, W.L. Yang, M.Y. Sun, R.Z. An, and W.M. Du
There have been contradicting observations regarding the prebiotic efficacy of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) extracted from different varieties of cereals with varying oligosaccharides and ferulic acid (FA) levels. The present study was performed to determine whether the mass ratio of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) to FA influences their combined effects on faecal FA content, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) output, and gut stress of d-galactose-treated aging rats. The results show that there was no significant difference in the faecal FA levels of rats fed with 5:1 and 10:1 XOS:FA diet, although the FA level in the 5:1-supplemented diet was twice as much as in the 10:1 diet. More utilisation of FA decreased butyric acid and SCFA output in the faeces for diet 5:1 compared with diets 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone. Furthermore, compared with 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone treatments, the 5:1 XOS:FA diet resulted in increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity and higher ratios of Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli (P < 0.05), while not increasing the number of probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. These findings suggest that under the specific stress level set for this study, the sufficient amount of FA added to XOS (5:1) can stimulate FA utilisation to modify gut redox balance, while reducing faecal SCFA output.