In nine mammalian species (mouse — cattle: 21.5 g–503 kg) lung total phospholipids (PL), alveolar surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) fatty acyl (FA) chain composition was tested relating to body mass (BM) and resting respiratory rate (RRR) associated adaptations. In PL, PC and SM oleic acid (C18:1 n9) provided negative correlations with RRR. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was strongly, positively correlated with RRR in the pulmonary PLs, and myristic (C14:0) acid correlated positively with RRR in the surfactant PCs. In pulmonary PLs negative allometry was found for myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic (C16:1 n7) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n3) acids and total saturation, while oleic (C18:1 n9), alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n3) and gondoic (C20:1 n9) acids, total n9 FA s and monounsaturation increased allometrically. In surfactant PC FA s palmitic acid provided negative, while oleic acid and monounsaturation positive allometry; the average FA chain length (ACL) was identical in all species. Surfactant SM FA composition was fully species independent for palmitic and arachidonic acids, total saturation, monounsaturation and ACL. The in vivo lipid peroxidation rate was species independent. The variability of lung PLs was consonant with the “membrane pacemakers theory”, while surfactant PC composition was mostly related to RRR.
Authors:H. Elbaraasi, M. Mézes, K. Balogh, L. Horváth, I. Csengeri and Hedvig Fébel
Lipids are used to provide the energy to cover the metabolic needs and to provide essential fatty acids, which are important for membrane function . Fats may contain high level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are prone to peroxidation  and will interact with the antioxidant defense system . There is contradiction in the literature about whether the intake of fish oil enhance  or deplete  tissue antioxidant defenses and the glutathione redox system in different organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of different dietary oils on parameters of the lipid peroxide state and the glutathione redox system in C. gariepinus fingerlings.
Authors:A. Szabó, M. Mézes, K. Balogh, R. Romvári, P. Horn and Hedvig Fébel
In a recent study (Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. (2010)155: 301–308) we reported that the fatty acids (FA) of the avian (7 species) total lung phospholipids (PL) (i.e. lung parenchyma and surfactant together) provide allometric properties. To test whether this allometric scaling also occurs in either of the above components, in six gallinaceous species, in a body weight range from 150 g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19 kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo) the PL FA composition (mol%) was determined in the pulmonary surfactant, in native and in thoroughly lavaged lungs (referred to as lung parenchyma). In all three components docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) showed significant and negative allometric scaling (B = −0.056, −0.17 and −0.1, respectively). Surfactant PLs provided further negative allometry for palmitic acid and the opposite was found for palmitoleate and arachidonate. In the lung parenchymal PLs increasing body weight was matched with shorter chain FAs (average FA chain length) and competing n6 and n3 end-product fatty acids (positive allometry for arachidonic acid and negative for DHA). Negative allometric scaling was found for the tissue malondialdehyde concentration in the native and lavaged lungs (B = −0.1582 and −0.1594, respectively). In these tissues strong correlation was found between the MDA concentration and DHA proportion (r = 0.439 and 0.679, respectively), denoting the role of DHA in shaping the allometric properties and influencing the extent of in vivo lipid peroxidation of membrane lipids in fowl lungs.