Authors:T. Veresegyházy, Hedvig Fébel and Ágnes Rimanóczy
The absorption of three amino acids (leucine, alanine and lysine) from the washed, closed rumen was studied in a short-term (75 min) experiment in situ. The concentration of leucine and alanine did not change in the rumen during the experiment, while that of lysine continuously decreased, and 40% of the total lysine placed in the rumen was absorbed during the experimental period. The rate of absorption decreased in proportion to the fall of amino acid concentration.
Authors:Hedvig Fébel, B. Szegedi and Szilvia Huszár
The intestinal absorption of trivalent and hexavalent chromium (Cr) given orally (experiment I) or infused in the intestine (experiment II) was investigated in rats. The nonabsorbable form of chromium (51Cr2O3) and water-soluble and more absorbable Na251CrO4 (the hexavalent form of Cr) were compared. Total retention of chromium given orally ranged around 15 percent of the dose, regardless of the chromium compounds applied. The absorption rate of chromic oxide, which is considered a nonabsorbable compound, was 14.4 as a percentage of chromium intake. This result indicates that some loss of chromium has to be taken into account in metabolic trials made by the indicator method. In isolated rat intestine, from the injected Cr 2.5% of chromic oxide and 43.2% of sodium chromate were absorbed during an hour (experiment II). The absorbed chromium was transferred to the liver where the liver tissue retained 10.9% of chromic oxide and 51.1% of sodium chromate. Radioactivity of v. cava caudalis following intestinal injection of Na2CrO4 was thirtyfold greater than after Na2CrO4 dosing. This phenomenon can be explained by the lower blood clearance of chromate. Different absorption rate of chromate depending on the route of administration could be due to the fact that the hexavalent form given orally was reduced to Cr3+ in the acidic environment of the stomach. When Na2CrO4 was infused directly in the intestine of rats, such reduction could not occur. This means that the acidic gastric juice might play a role in inhibiting the intestinal absorption of Na2CrO4 when this compound is given orally.
Authors:Éva Szabó, R. Romvári, Hedvig Fébel and et al.
The present study was designed to investigate whether meat-type rabbits are able to perform treadmill running as a daily routine exercise, and if so, whether the exercise induces specific proportional changes in the fatty acid composition of their muscles. After a four-week training period 8-week-old rabbits were slaughtered and the total activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase was measured, showing a significant difference between the exercised and control groups (429 ± 126 IU/l vs. 639 ± 203 IU/l). Furthermore the fatty acid composition of m. longissimus dorsi (MLD) and m. vastus lateralis (MVL) was determined by means of gas chromatography. Exercise increased the proportions of oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) in both MLD and MVL as compared to the control group. However, the level of stearic (C18:0) and arachidonic (C20:4 n-6) acids significantly decreased in the MVL after the exercise. Changes in the fatty acid profile resulting from the physically loaded condition were of the same tendency in both muscles, adding that the MVL might have been exposed to the exercise more intensively; alterations there occurred in a more pronounced manner. Based on the inference that the composition of membrane structure was also affected, these alterations may have important consequences on meat quality.
Authors:T. Veresegyházy, Hedvig Fébel, G. Nagy and Ágnes Rimanóczy
The absorption of ethanol from the rumen was studied in three British Milk sheep equipped with a rumen cannula. After removal of the rumen content and washing the forestomachs several times the reticulo-omasal orifice was closed and through the cannula 20 or 60 ml ethanol and 2 ml Cr-EDTA were infused in physiological saline. The entire fluid volume was 3000 ml. At the start of the experiment (0 min) and subsequently in the 5th, 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 75th minutes samples were taken from the fluid present in the forestomachs. During the 75-min experiment the amount of ethanol gradually decreased in the rumen. The rate of disappearance varied according to concentration. The graph depicting the change of ruminal ethanol concentration shows a curve typical of passive transport. The equation describing the disappearance of ethanol was y = -0.0474x2 + 5.6544x + 10.869 after the administration of 20 ml ethanol, and y = -0.1377x2 + 19.541x - 24.606 after the infusion of 60 ml ethanol. It was established that ethanol was absorbed through the rumen wall by a passive transport process.
Authors:Éva Szabó, R. Romvári, P. Bogner, Hedvig Fébel and Zs. Szendr'
Pannon White growing rabbits (a group of 8) were exposed to treadmill exercise (3-9 m/s, 1.2-1.6 km/day) twice a day for 4 weeks, while additional 8 animals, kept inactive, were assigned as the control group. Weekly, 12 hours after exercise, venous blood was taken for serum metabolite and enzyme activity measurements. Total serum protein, albumin and creatinine levels significantly increased during the second half of the training, as compared to the control group. Triacylglycerol levels in the exercised group as compared to controls, however, were higher only after the first and the fourth weeks of the experiment. Resting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration of the trained rabbits was lower at the end of the trial. On the other hand, there were no significant differences, as compared to the respective controls, in serum urea, total and HDL cholesterol levels. At the end of the exercise alkaline phosphatase activity was higher and total lactate dehydrogenase activity was lower in the trained rabbits. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were not changed, while creatine kinase activity was slightly lower in the trained group. The serum cortisol concentration was not different in the trained and control rabbits.
Authors:Mónika Heincinger, Krisztián Balogh, Hedvig Fébel, Márta Erdélyi and Miklós Mézes
To study the possible effects of different inclusion levels of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on the lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox status of chickens, 200 three-week-old Ross 308 cockerels were assigned to four treatment groups of 50 birds each. The groups were fed a control and three experimental, isocaloric and isonitrogenous grower diets containing 15, 20 and 25% DDGS, respectively, combined with lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation until 6 weeks of age. It was found that DDGS inclusion increased the ether extract content of the diets which resulted in higher reduced glutathione (GSH) content and elevated glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPx) in the liver. However, DDGS addition with Lys and Met supplementation did not influence the malondialdehyde content of the blood and the liver. The oleic acid proportion of the diet showed a close positive correlation with GSH content of the liver. A smaller ratio of methionine and cysteine in the diet with DDGS resulted in significantly higher liver GSH content. GSHPx activity increased parallel with the elevated GSH content of the liver homogenate, suggesting that the enzyme is activated by the actual supply of its co-substrate. In conclusion, the results show that DDGS, even at a high inclusion level combined with Lys and Met supplementation, has no initiative effect on lipid peroxidation in the blood and liver of broiler chickens.
Authors:Péter Sarlós, István Egerszegi, Szabolcs Nagy, Hedvig Fébel and József Rátky
Seasonal changes in testis volume, testosterone (T) productivity (GnRH test) and semen characteristics of Mangalica boars were studied. The biggest testis volume was measured in autumn and the smallest in winter. Significant differences were demonstrated between autumn-winter (P = 0.012) and autumn-spring (P = 0.015) in testis volume. The highest basic T concentration (Tb) was observed in autumn and the lowest in summer. The provoked T concentration (Tincr) was significantly higher in autumn than in spring (P = 0.0007). A strong correlation was observed between T concentrations and testis volume in spring. The highest ejaculate volume was measured in winter while the lowest in autumn. Significant differences were found in semen concentration as well as in the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate between seasons. The highest number of abnormal sperm cells was observed in spring while the lowest in summer. It can be concluded that the ejaculate of the Mangalica breed tends to be of lower volume and higher sperm concentration as compared to most pig breeds. Seasonal differences could be observed in testicular measurements, testosterone production capacity and sperm morphological features; however, sperm motility remained constantly high during the study.
Authors:Hedvig Fébel, F. Husvéth, T. Veresegyházy and et al.
This study was designed to determine the effects of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (CS), hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA), butylsoyamide (BSA) and soybean oil (SO) on degradation of crude protein and fibre in vitro, and on the blood plasma lipid parameters in vivo. Five mature wethers (body weight 75 kg) were fed five diets in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment. The control diet consisted of 50% meadow hay and 50% concentrate with no added fat. The control diet was supplemented with CS, HESA, BSA, or SO. Fat was added at 3.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). The final ether extract content of the ration was near 6%. Each period lasted 20 days. Fat supplements, except HESA, consistently decreased the in vitro DM disappearance of soybean meal as compared to control. In contrast to the effect of other treatments, crude protein degradation was greatest in the test tubes with inocula obtained from sheep fed diet with HESA. Fat supplements equally inhibited the DM and fibre breakdown of alfalfa pellet. CS and HESA seemed to be less detrimental to in vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than BSA and SO. All fat supplements increased blood plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total lipid content. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and total lipid was highest with SO. The inclusion of CS in the diet increased 16:0, while all fat supplements increased plasma 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acid content. Plasma 18:2n-6 was not changed by feeding CS and SO. However, compared to the control diet, 18:2n-6 increased with 12 and 41% in plasma fatty acids when sheep were fed HESA and BSA, respectively. The results showed that plasma concentration of linoleic acid was enhanced more when the amide was synthesised from butylamine than when from ethanolamine.
Authors:Janka Petrilla, Gábor Mátis, Anna Kulcsár, Petra Talapka, Enikő Bíró, Máté Mackei, Hedvig Fébel and Zsuzsanna Neogrády
This study investigates the metabolic effects of maize- or wheat-based diets with normal (NP) and lowered (LP) dietary crude protein level [the latter supplemented with limiting amino acids and sodium (n-)butyrate at 1.5 g/kg diet] at different phases of broiler fattening. Blood samples of Ross 308 broilers were tested at the age of 1, 3 and 6 weeks. Total protein (TP) concentration increased in wheat-based and decreased in LP groups in week 3, while butyrate reduced albumin/TP ratio in week 1. Uric acid level was elevated by wheat-based diet in week 1 and by wheat-based diet and butyrate in week 3, but decreased in LP groups in weeks 3 and 6. Aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased by wheat-based diet in week 3, and creatine kinase activity was intensified by LP in weeks 3 and 6. Blood glucose level decreased in wheat-based groups in week 3; however, triglyceride concentration was augmented in the same groups in week 3. No change of glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin concentration was observed. In conclusion, an age-dependent responsiveness of broilers to dietary factors was found, dietary cereal type was a potent modulator of metabolism, and a low crude protein diet supplemented with limiting amino acids might have a beneficial impact on the growth of chickens.
Authors:András Szabó, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Hedvig Fébel, Miklós Mézes, Imre Repa and Melinda Kovács
Adult male Wistar rats were enrolled in a study to test the acute hepatic effects of 50 mg/kg fumonisin B1 in feed for 5 days. Fumonisin B1 depressed growth and feed intake, and absolute and relative liver weight showed a significant increase. The proportions of C17:0, C18:3 n3, C22:5 n3 and C22:6 n3 fatty acids decreased in the hepatic phospholipid fraction. All proportional decreases modified the hepatocellular membrane lipids into a more rigid state. The fatty acid profile modifications were partly compensated for by endogenous glutathione (preventing the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes as initial phase lipid peroxidation indicators), while the enzymatic antioxidant defence system (glutathione peroxidase) was unaltered. In contrast, hepatic malondialdehyde, the cytotoxic product of end-phase lipid peroxidation showed a concentration increase even after 5 days of feeding. The results indicate a rather strong and rapid hepatic effect of FB1, immediately impairing membrane phospholipids, even before the enzymatic antioxidant defence is activated.