Authors:T. Somogyi, I. Holló, J. Csapó, I. Anton and G. Holló
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and type of muscle on the mineral content of beef. Altogether 62 young bulls from Angus, Charolais, Holstein, Hungarian Simmental, Hungarian Grey, and Charolais×Hungarian Grey were used. The calcium content varied between 26–46 mg kg−1, in longissimus muscle of Hungarian Simmental it was significantly higher than for other genotypes except for Angus. Psoas major of Holstein had the highest phosphorus content, it significantly differed from the longissimus of Angus. Longissimus muscle of Angus was the poorest for magnesium, and the richest was the psoas major of Holstein and Hungarian Grey. Charolais had higher level of potassium in psoas major than Angus and Charolais×Hungarian Grey. Sodium content of semitendinosus in Charolais×Hungarian Grey was lower than in Holstein. Present data showed that levels were detected in the longissimus of Angus and semitendinosus of Holstein. Concerning zinc, a higher level was found in longissimus, especially for Holstein. The results confirmed that beef mineral content depends on genotype, and is related to muscle type, too.
Intramuscular fat content (marbling) is an economically important factor in many beef carcass classification systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate marbling of longissimus muscle with different methods (USDA marbling score, image analysis of X-ray computed tomography scans, and conventional method), moreover it was aimed to establish the relationship between marbling traits and SEUROP conformation and fat score. Bulls (n=46) were slaughtered at an average weight of 536±126 kg and an average age of 646±437 days. The average growth rate of bulls was 955 g day–1, the average chemical fat content of longissimus varied between 2.3 to 5.0% in fat classes. The intramuscular fat content on CT-scans closely correlated with chemical fat content (r=0.9). The highest frequency of USDA marbling score was “small” (55.2%), followed by “slight” (25.5%), “modest” (17%), and “moderate” (2.1%). Bulls with higher growth rate had lower CT-measured marbling traits in longissimus muscle (r = –0.4 – –0.5). The CT scans of longissimus muscle can be used for the evaluation of marbling in Hungarian Simmental cattle. The SEUROP conformation and fat score have no relationship with marbling traits.
Authors:G. Holló, B. Húth, E. Egri, I. Holló and I. Anton
Intramuscular connective tissue plays an important role in determining meat tenderness. The objective of the research was to compare the collagen/hydroxyproline content and X-ray Computed Tomographic (CT) connective tissue proportion of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in Hungarian Simmental bulls and cows. Animals (n=24) were slaughtered at similar live weight (bulls: 530.6+44.7 kg, cows: 527.3+53.5 kg) under standard commercial conditions in Hungary. After 24 h chilling, LT samples were taken from the right half carcass at the 12th rib. CT examinations were carried out with a 16-slice CT system (slice thickness: 5 mm). Samples were scanned at different user-selectable tube voltages e.g. low: 80 kV and high: 140 kV. CT value at LT muscle area of each mixed scan (80 and 140 kV) was determined. Volumetric connective tissue content was measured (above 200 CT value) as well. Following CT, the hydroxyproline/collagen content and intramuscular fat content of LT were determined. Cows had lower carcass weight (247 kg vs 295 kg), EU conformation score (3.5 vs 5.5), and fatness score (4.2 vs 5.9) than bulls (P<0.01). Bulls had higher LT area, but intramuscular fat content was similar for bulls (2.8±1.9) and cows (2.7±2.0). On the other hand, bulls had lower CT intramuscular connective tissue proportion in LT compared to cows (0.4±0.2% vs 0.7±0.3% P<0.01). The same tendency could be observed for the collagen content (0.5±0.2% vs 0.7±0.1% P<0.01). Correlation between the CT connective tissue proportion of LT and collagen content was r=0.8 (P=0.000). There was a weak positive correlation between slaughter age and CT connective tissue as well as collagen content of LT (r=0.3–0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, intramuscular connective tissue proportion in LT increased with slaughter age, and older cows had higher collagen and connective tissue proportion than bulls. Mixed CT scans can be used for the analysis of intramuscular connective tissue content.
Authors:A. Zsolnai, R. Szántó-Egész, E. Ferencz-Elblinger, A. Dang Huu, A. Jánosi, E. Koppányné Szabó and I. Anton
We used an alternative approach, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, to detect Mangalitza component in food products, and it has been compared to an established Recombinase Polymerase Amplification test. The correlation between the assays was significant (P<0.01). Linear determination coefficient between the assays was 0.993 and level of diagnostic agreement was high (Kappa=0.971).
Previously, a real-time PCR method based on TaqMan probe was developed (Szántó-Egész et al., 2013) for detection of Mangalitza meat in food products, using a Mangalitza specific sequence. Other Mangalitza specific sequences suitable for the same purpose are also in use (V. Stéger, personal communication).
Approaches like real-time monitoring of accumulation of the specific DNA product usually require specialised laboratory equipment. For Mangalitza detection, portable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) approach has been developed (Szántó-Egész et al., 2016), which requires a device capable of maintaining 39 °C and a lateral flow strip with easy yes/no indication of the successful amplification.
We wanted to develop another fast, non-PCR based test with minimal laboratory requirement to provide a third possibility to detect Mangalitza component in food.