Authors:M. Freitas, Z. Révay, L. Szentmiklósi, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, and A. Pacheco
Different methodologies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) are now available at the Technological and Nuclear Institute
(Sacavém, Portugal), namely Compton suppression, epithermal activation, replicate and cyclic activation, and low energy photon
measurement. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) will be implemented soon. Results by instrumental NAA and PGAA on environmental
and nutritional samples are discussed herein, showing that PGAA — carried out at the Institute of Isotope Research (Budapest,
Hungary) — brings about an effective input to assessing relevant elements. Sensitivity enhancement in NAA by Compton suppression
is also illustrated. Through a judicious combination of methodologies, practically all elements of interest in pollution and
nutrition terms can be determined.
Authors:M. Freitas, A. Pacheco, I. Dionísio, S. Sarmento, M. Baptista, M. Vasconcelos, and J. Cabral
In a biomonitoring study aiming to find alternatives to lower epiphytes as air-quality monitors, lichens and tree bark were
exposed at different sites for discontinuous periods of 2 months and continuously. Native lichens were collected as well.
The contents for 22 elements were obtained by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quality control as asserted by analyzing ISE-921, NIST-1547 and TL-1 was good Losses of
As and Se by volatilization during sample digestion and neutron irradiation were evident, Ca contents by ICP-MS appeared underestimated
probably due to the formation of the insoluble fluoride. ICP-MS featured a better precision than INAA. Nonparametric statistics
were applied to the ICP-MS replicates, to those determined by INAA, and to compare the results of both techniques. High or
even excellent correlations were found between replicates in INAA, whereas, in ICP-MS, Cr and Ta were just fairly or not correlated.
As an overall comparison of the techniques, biased results were found for As, Ba, Ce, Cr, Cs, Hf, La, Sc, Se, Ta, and Zn,
unbiased results could be found for Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sm, Tb, Th, and U.
Authors:N. Canha, M. Freitas, H. Anawar, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, C. Pinto-Gomes, and A. Bettencourt
This study aims to find out a vascular plant species that accumulate relatively high concentrations of arsenic (As) for its
use as phytoremediator at abandoned and contaminated mining areas, such as São Domingos mines (Portugal). The assessment of
As contamination levels in soils and plants of other similar sites in the north of the country (Castromil and Poço de Freitas)
was also conducted; and the sample analyses were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Agrostis genera have shown higher As transfer coefficients than other studied plant species and, in particular, Agrostis curtisii has shown a reasonable ability to accumulate high concentration of this toxic element.
Authors:M. Freitas, A. Pacheco, M. Bacchi, I. Dionísio, S. Landsberger, J. Braisted, and E. Fernandes
In 2003–2004, several food items were purchased from large commercial outlets in Coimbra, Portugal. Such items included meats
(chicken, pork, beef), eggs, rice, beans and vegetables (tomato, carrot, potato, cabbage, broccoli, lettuce). Elemental analysis
was carried out through INAA at the Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN, Portugal), the Nuclear Energy Centre for Agriculture
(CENA, Brazil), and the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab of the University of Texas at Austin (NETL, USA). At the latter two,
INAA was also associated to Compton suppression. It can be concluded that by applying Compton suppression (1) the detection
limits for arsenic, copper and potassium improved; (2) the counting-statistics error for molybdenum diminished; and (3) the
long-lived zinc had its 1115-keV photopeak better defined. In general, the improvement sought by introducing Compton suppression
in foodstuff analysis was not significant. Lettuce, cabbage and chicken (liver, stomach, heart) are the richest diets in terms
of human nutrients.
Authors:S. Tsakovski, P. Simeonova, V. Simeonov, M. Freitas, I. Dionísio, and A. Pacheco
This article illustrates the use of chemometrics in the interpretation of aerosol data collected by a seven-wavelength aethalometer
at the PICO-NARE observatory, in Pico island, Azores, Portugal. Samples were assessed through k0-standardized, instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA), and concentrations of up to 20 airborne elements were determined. The chemometric analysis by self-organizing maps
(SOM) tried to identify groups of similarity for sampling events and chemical tracers, discriminating in this way each group
of similarity thus obtained. Additionally, synoptic back trajectories for each of the sampling days distributed into four
clusters were calculated, in order to associate the classified groups with possible pollution sources.
Authors:M. Freitas, S. Almeida, A. Pacheco, I. Dionísio, C. Repolho, A. Caseiro, C. Pio, and C. Alves
In 2006, elementary schools of inner-city Lisbon, Portugal were given questionnaires to identify respiratory problems. In
1,175 children aged 5–10 years, 27.7% reported rhinitis, 2.5% reported hay fever and 25.9% reported asthma symptoms. April
and August were the months with higher incidence of rhinitis, with a considerable difference nonetheless (10.5% and 2.3%,
respectively.). The former trends are addressed here by using meteorological data, PM2.5, and its elemental speciation. Mann-Whitney U-tests were applied to the data sets. Significantly higher values were found for humidity, K+, NH4+, Sb and Zn in April, and for temperature, Cl−, Mg2+ and Na+ in August. Commuter and heavy-duty traffic may contribute to rhinitis episodes.
Authors:M. Reis, M. Freitas, H. Dung, A. Mateus, I. Paiva, M. Madruga, M. Gonçalves, L. Silva, and I. Dionísio
The main objective of this study is the elemental characterization of geomaterial samples (“soils” and Rañas), collected between 2007 and 2008, in the Morais Massif, (NE Mainland of Portugal) by using two complementary techniques:
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Samples granulometric fractions lower
than 63 μm were analyzed by gamma spectrometry, for artificial and natural radionuclides using HPGe detectors and by INAA,
for chemical elements at the Portuguese research reactor, RPI. Statistical analysis, such as clusters analysis and Pearson
correlations were applied to the obtained results. The enrichment factors were also calculated as an estimator of anthropogenic
inputs in relation to the average crustal abundance. Group differentiation of Rañas and “soils” is clearly shown from cluster analysis. The strong correlation factors obtained between some chemical elements
corroborates the origins and the geology/mineralogy of the area studied. The combined application of both nuclear analytical
techniques has shown their importance in providing useful information for the future site and repository performance and safety
Authors:S. Almeida, M. Freitas, C. Repolho, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, A. Caseiro, C. Alves, C. Pio, and A. Pacheco
The goal of this research is to determine trends and sources of airborne particulates in the centre of Lisbon, by using speciated
particulate-matter data and back-trajectory analyses. Results showed that, in 2007, the annual PM2.5 concentration exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels. PM2.5 diurnal variability and the ratio between weekdays’ and weekends’ concentrations indicated that traffic contributed highly
to decreasing air quality. Air back-trajectory analysis showed that maritime air mass transport had a significant role on
air quality in Lisbon, promoting the decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations.
Authors:M. Freitas, I. Dionísio, D. Beasley, S. Almeida, H. Dung, C. Repolho, A. Pacheco, A. Caseiro, C. Pio, and C. Alves
The number of children reporting rhinitis by month is compared with air pollutant concentrations in Lisbon, where they live
and attend school. INAA, ionic exchange chromatography and data accessed through the internet were statistically processed
with the children rhinitis data. Association between rhinitis and atmospheric variables are processed using Spearman non-parametric
statistics and principal component analysis. It is pointed out that traffic, soil resuspension from traffic, meteorological
conditions, and industry air pollutants contribute to respiratory trends. Ir (Pt group), a vehicle catalyst, may have some
Authors:S. Almeida, M. Freitas, C. Repolho, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, C. Pio, C. Alves, A. Caseiro, and A. Pacheco
Recent health studies evidence that epidemiological studies must be combined with accurate analyses of the physico-chemical
properties of the particles in order to determine the effects of atmospheric aerosols on human health. The project “Atmospheric
Aerosol Impacts on Human Health” focuses on the chemical characterization of PM2.5 aerosols with the aim to analyze the health
risks associated with exposure to aerosols and understand how their chemical composition contributes to the toxicity and human
health problems traditionally associated with fine particles. During one year, PM2.5 was collected daily, with a Partisol
sampler, in the centre of Lisbon. The aerosols were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Ion Chromatography in order
to determine their chemical composition. In parallel the clinical situation of students from the schools situated around the
sampler was followed. The incidence of asthma and rhinitis episodes was registered. Results showed that students were exposed
to PM2.5 concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization recommended levels. A marked sea influence in the aerosol
characteristics was identified by the use of air masses trajectories and by the concentrations of chloride, sodium and magnesium.