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The social structure of nomadic societies is best reflected in that of organised nomadic empires. The present article explores the closely interrelated social, economic and military activities in advanced nomadic societies. The changing status and sometimes significantly different roles of newly conquered tribes are elucidated to provide a true picture of the organising principles of the relationship between the conquerors and the conquered population. Myths of origin, religious elements, real or virtual borders and the practice of exogamy all played a decisive role in creating social stability and an efficiently functioning order on the steppe. Furthermore, the term half-nomad is investigated to clarify its precise meaning, clearly contrasting it with some widespread misunderstandings. It is suggested that the use of this term should be avoided in contexts when it refers to the mixture of livestock-breeding and pasture-life. In addition, the exact meaning of the term clan and the roles of women in nomadic societies are analysed with various mythical and historical examples. The author suggests that the general concepts of nomadic societies could and should be applied to the history of the Magyars.
One passage of the Sutra Manifestation of the Tathagata is studied in this article. The central question of this passage is whether the Tathagata has mental activity like ordinary people. The exegetes of medieval China recognised the ambiguity of Indian Buddhist tradition on this topic. These monks attempted to harmonise the different views under the rubric of perfect teaching, i.e. the Huayan teaching. This article includes a translation of Chengguan's commentary on this passage, as it is not only the most elaborate explanation of the text, but also a good example of how Chinese commentaries interpreted scriptural sources.
Chinese short stories and novels differ greatly from their European counterparts. The birth of the Chinese story is closely linked to the development of the Chinese commercial cities, in which their authors, audience and typical figures lived. Historical themes occur frequently, but the real heroes of the stories are people living on the periphery of society: merchants, thieves, and other city-dwellers. The imperial court and high officials only play a limited role. Young scholars and failed examination candidates, on the other hand, make a frequent appearance. The authors of most stories are unknown to us, as the stories have developed for centuries, and their written versions were compiled relatively lately, centuries after the emergence of the original story cycles.
Xixing, Lu: 'Shijing' yiwen yanjiu (The Study of Textual Variants of the Shijing) Hamar, Imre: A Religious Leader in the Tang: Chengguan's Biography Qian, Nanxiu: Spirit and Self in Medieval China. The Shih-shuo hsin-yü and Its Legacy Chen, Jinhua: Making and Remaking History. A Study of Tiantai Sectarian Historiography Nozaki, Akira-Baker, Chris (eds): Village Communities, State and Traders. Essays in Honour of Chatthip Nartsupha Gottfried von Laimbeckhoven SJ (1707-1787) Der Bischof von Nanjing und seine Briefe aus China mit Faksimile seiner Reisebeschreibung. Transkribiert und bearbeitet von Stephan Puhl (1941-1997), und Sigismund Freiherr von Elverfeldt-Ulm unter Mitwirkung von Gerhard Zeilinger. Zum Druck vorbereitet und herausgegeben von Roman Malek SVD Zetzsche, Jost Oliver: The Bible in China: The History of the Union Version or The Culmination of Protestant Missionary Bible Translation in China Xinran: The Good Women of China. Hidden Voices. Translated by Esther Tyldesley