Authors:A. Farrona, M. Gallego, J. Vaquero and F. Domínguez-Castro
Exceptional geomagnetic storms were observed in late August and early September 1859. Auroras were observed around the world, and telegraph wires were damaged. Until now, there has been no evidence published of auroral observations in Spain during this famous space weather event. This paper presents Spanish observations that show the aspect of this great aurora from Spain, and the concurrent effects on European telegraph wires. We also computed the variation of the geomagnetic declination in Spain during recent centuries to put these records into context.