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  • Author or Editor: J. Farkas x
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The analysis was conducted on the national database of the station tests carried out between May 1996 and February 2001, using the Hungarian Large White (LW) and Hungarian Landrace (LR) breeds, and the A-line of the Ka-Hyb hybrid (MLW). Days of test, total amount of feed consumed and valuable cuts were taken into the analysis to test the random distribution of the animals' phenotypic measurements and predicted breeding values across the contemporary groups of origin. The phenotypic measurements of all traits were clearly positively associated with the herds of origin (b = 0.52-1.08). Animals with favourable phenotypic measurements originated from better herds. On the contrary, the predicted breeding values seemed to be independent of the herd effects (b= -0.16-0.08) and suggested a possible random distribution across the contemporary groups.

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The occurrence of a periosteal chondroma (juxtacortical chondroma) in an adult male Uromastyx maliensis is documented for the first time. The chondroma developed near the right shoulder joint from the periosteal membrane, causing partial atrophy in the surrounding skeletal muscles. In the chondroma tissues widespread central necrosis and secondary calcium salt deposition were observed. Monomorphic chondrocytes were irregularly spread in the chondromucin matrix. The lizard had locomotor problems due to irritation of the periosteum and reduced movement of the bones constituting the shoulder joint caused by the chondroma.

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A bioluminescent derivative of Bacillus subtilis containing a plasmid encoding a luxAB fusion under control of a vegetative promoter and gives bioluminescence upon addition of an exogenous long-chain aldehyde has been used as test organism. Its spore populations have been produced and their heat- and radiation survival curves established. Heat-sensitization effect of pre-irradiation of spores was proven not only by colony counting but also with differential scanning calorimetry. Under a linearly programmed temperature increase, the heat destruction of spores surviving 2.5 kGy gamma irradiation resulted in at a few centigrade lower temperature than that of untreated spores. Heat denaturation endotherms in the DSC-thermogram of irradiated spores were shifted to lower temperatures as well. Comparative turbidimetric, luminometric and phase-contrast microscopic studies of untreated, heat-treated and irradiated spore populations showed that the kinetics of germination and the light emission during germination of radiation-inactivated spores were the same as those of untreated spores, revealing that the pre-formed luciferase enzyme packaged into the spores during sporulation remained intact after an irradiation dose causing 90% decrease in number of colony forming spores. Therefore, in contrast to heat-treated spores, the initial bioluminescence reading upon germination of irradiated spores does not reflect the viable count of their population.

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Authors: Kinga Horváth, Zs. Seregély, I. Dalmadi, Éva Andrássy and J. Farkas

The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and “real” values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

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Suspensions of a bioluminescent (luxAB) transformant of Listeria monocytogenes in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer were pressurised and the effect of the pressure treatment was monitored by plate counting. When the bacteria were suspended in NaCl- and nisin-free buffer the number of colony forming units (CFU) decreased by 3 and 6 log cycles after 300 MPA for 10 and 30 min, respectively. Supplementing the plating medium with 5% NaCl did not influence the colony forming capacity of non-pressurised cells, however, CFU of residual populations after respective treatments of 300 MPa for 10 and 30 min were reduced by a further 2 and 3.5 log cycles in case of salt containing plates. Nisin-addition to the plating medium caused less than one log unit decrease in the CFU of the non-pressurised population. However, the CFU of 10 min-pressurised sample was 4 log cycles less in the nisin-containing plates than in the nisin-free ones, whereas no colonies were formed in the nisin-containing plates even when 1 ml was inoculated from the originally 1010 CFU/ml population after 300 MPa for 30 min. The luciferase activities (bioluminescence intensities) decreased concomitant with the reduction of the viable cell counts, however, they were approx. 0.6-0.8 log units less in the presence of 5% NaCl in the pressurised suspension than those expected from the previously established linear correlation between the logarithmic light outputs and the logarithmic viable cell counts.

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Authors: Erika Orosz, Nóra Szentmáry, Huba J. Kiss, Ágnes Farkas, István Kucsera and Zoltán Zsolt Nagy

Acanthamoeba has a worldwide distribution in the environment and it is capable of causing a painful sight-threatening disease of the cornea designated as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Nowadays, the cases of AK have surged all over the world along with its disease burden due to increasing use of contact lenses used not only for optical correction but also for cosmetic purposes. In our present work, epithelial abrasion of a 27-year-old female soft contact lens wearer with keratitis was examined. Genotype identification was carried out with a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Genotyping allowed the identification of a T8 group isolate. The analysis confirmed the importance of a complete diagnostic protocol, including a PCR assay, for the clinical diagnosis of AK from human samples. Acanthamoeba T8 should be considered as potential causative organism in keratitis in human.

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Numerous studies indicate that smoking during pregnancy exerts harmful effects on fetal brain development. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the early physical and neurobehavioral development of newborn rats. Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body smoke exposure for 2 × 40 min daily from the day of mating until day of delivery. For this treatment, a manual closed-chamber smoking system and 4 research cigarettes per occasion were used. After delivery the offspring were tested daily for somatic growth, maturation of facial characteristics and neurobehavioral development until three weeks of age. Motor coordination tests were performed at 3 and 4 weeks of age. We found that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure did not alter weight gain or motor coordination. Critical physical reflexes indicative of neurobehavioral development (eyelid reflex, ear unfolding) appeared significantly later in pups prenatally exposed to smoke as compared to the control group. Prenatal smoke exposure also resulted in a delayed appearance of reflexes indicating neural maturity, including hind limb grasping and forelimb placing reflexes. In conclusion, clinically relevant prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke results in slightly altered neurobehavioral development in rat pups. These findings suggest that chronic exposure of pregnant mothers to cigarette smoke (including passive smoking) results in persisting alterations in the developing brain, which may have long-lasting consequences supporting the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DoHAD).

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