Sodium titanium germanate with a semicrystalline framework (STG) of the formula Na3H(TiO)3(GeO)(GeO4)3·7H2O was synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions and its proton form, H4(TiO)3(GeO)(GeO4)3·8H2O (STG-H), was prepared by acid treatment of the sodium compound. The STG was characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FT-IR,
and X-ray powder diffraction. A comparative ion exchange examination of the STG-H towards alkali and alkaline earth metals
in a broad pH and concentration range was carried out. It was found that the STG is a moderately weak cation exchanger, possessing
high ion exchange capacity (up to 4.0 meq/g) and showing preference for heavy alkali and alkaline earth metals. The STG selectivity
towards Cs+ and Sr2+ ions in the presence of competitive metal ions and certain organic compounds was also studied. The data obtained suggest
that the sodium titanium germanate is a more selective exchanger for Sr2+ ion than its titanium silicate analogue, K3H(TiO)4(SiO4)3·4H2O.
The adsorption of Ce3+ on hydrated manganese dioxide (HMD) was studied as a function of concentration, temperature and pH of the cerium solution
labelled with141Ce. The steady state values of cerium adsorption at various concentrations fit well with the classical Freundlich isotherm.
The effect of temperature on equilibrium adsorption values was utilized to determine the change in the standard enthalpy ΔHo of the cerium uptake process and its value (ΔHo=10.57) indicates that the uptake process proceeds via ion exchange.141Ce desorption studies, from HMD in water, HCl and unlabelled CeCl3 solution, confirmed the ion exchange nature of the cerium uptake process as well as its reversibility.
The fractionation of different natural radionuclides (U-isotopes,226Ra and210Po) in the process used for the production of phosphoric acid in some factories located in the southwest of Spain is analyzed. As a consequence, different ways of natural radionuclide liberation to the environment can be evaluated due to these industrial activities.
99mTc hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) is a cationic complex useful as a myocardial perfusion agent. The synthesis of 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) by a modified and improved procedure in a two-step process with an overall yield of 53% is described. The preparation of its copper and technetium-99m complexes is also presented.
Sliced ready-to-eat traditional meat products presented in individual packaging with more convenience to the consumer is the way that food industry tries to adapt to the new consumer tendencies.
The current work assessed the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in a contaminated sliced vacuum packed chouriço with different sugar concentrations, two salt levels, and presence/absence of Lactobacillus sakei as starter culture along the storage period at two temperatures (8 °C and 22 °C). Neither the inoculation with L. sakei, nor the addition of carbohydrates influenced the survival of the pathogen. Higher amount of salt resulted in a significant reduction of L. monocytogenes, and storage at the higher temperature displayed a safer product. After 7 days, L. monocytogenes was not detected in any samples. The study of the association of the factors contributing for L. monocytogenes survival by logistic regression showed that increasing the level of salt addition from 1.5% to 3% reduces the odds of survival of L. monocytogenes to about one fifth (0.174). Worthy of attention is the significant reduction in the odds (OR=0.028) of finding viable L. monocytogenes when the samples are stored at room temperature (22 °C), when compared to low temperature (8 °C).
The general and indiscriminate use of refrigeration for meat products might increase the risk of presence of L. monocytogenes. The competitive advantage that L. monocytogenes has at low temperatures, as the potential inhibition of LAB activity, is probably the reason of the observed behaviour. The amount of salt was an important hurdle to control L. monocytogenes growth, so, manufacturing meat products with lower salt contents to meet the demands of healthy products might represent a risk for safety, since high levels of salt together with low aw are the keys for their conservation.
We compared the haematological and biochemical values within a population of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) in the Chafarinas Islands (Northern Africa), in non-breeding (February) and breeding (May) animals. We collected blood samples from 51 adults. We found that according to the haematological data, there was a significant variation in haemoglobin content, and a higher proportion of heterophils, thrombocytes, and Haemoproteus infection in breeding individuals with a lower level in basophils. Blood biochemistry showed a higher level in plasmatic proteins, calcium, phosphorus, thiobarbituric acidreactive substances and alkaline phosphatase as well as alanine aminotransferase activity in breeding animals while cholesterol and phospholipid levels showed a lower level. There was also a sexual difference in triglycerides, albumin, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and alkaline phosphatase activity. Hence, the haematological and blood chemistry values of yellow-legged gulls showed some differences between breeding and non-breeding individuals as well as between sexes.
Here we present a new proof of Blatter's result: a normed space is complete if every bounded closed convex subset has an element of minimum norm. We also present geometrical conditions for the existence of minimum-norm elements in bounded closed convex sets. Also, we characterize reflexivity in the class of Banach spaces by means of contraction functions. Furthermore, we study what happens if we remove the completeness hypothesis.
A sufficient condition for the strict insertion of a continuous function between two comparable upper and lower semicontinuous
functions on a normal space is given. Among immediate corollaries are the classical insertion theorems of Michael and Dowker.
Our insertion lemma also provides purely topological proofs of some standard results on closed subsets of normal spaces which
normally depend upon uniform convergence of series of continuous functions. We also establish a Tietze-type extension theorem
characterizing closed Gδ-sets in a normal space.