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  • Author or Editor: Jin Kim x
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Abstract

Metastasis to the ampulla of Vater from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rarely encountered. We present the case of a 50-year-old male admitted with complaints of right upper quadrant pain and jaundice. The medical history consisted of a right radical nephrectomy, right adrenalectomy, and brain mass excision for RCC and metastasis. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a round ampullary mass with ulceration. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an enhancing mass in the ampulla of Vater, total pancreas, and left adrenal gland. Pathologic examination of a biopsy specimen was compatible with metastatic RCC of the clear cell type. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram revealed complete obstruction of the distal common bile duct. A metal stent was inserted for bile drainage via the percutaneous transhepatic route. Patients with a history of RCC should undergo a careful long-term follow-up to detect and evaluate metastasis to usual and unusual sites.

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Thelohanellus kitauei was isolated from the koi Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, and the 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei was amplified by optimised nested-PCR. The PCR product was sequenced and compared with other 18S rRNA genes of Thelohanellus species to investigate the relationships between their host specificities and infection sites. Based on the 18S rRNA sequences, T. kitauei is most closely related to T. hovorkai (which can infect the intestine). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that T. kitauei was clustered with other Thelohanellus spp. infecting Cyprininae. The present study suggests that the infection site and the host specificity (subfamily level) are reflected in the genetic relationships among Thelohanellus species.

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A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called ‘Jin-Pi’, is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and β-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.

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