Authors:Yong Chung, Jong Moon, Young Chung, Kil Lee, and Yoon Yoon
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in the determination of toxic and other trace elements in a set
of three algae materials provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the aim of environmental preservation through
enhanced applications of nuclear analytical techniques. The quality of the analysis method has been evaluated by analyzing
a number of biological standard reference materials. By adding mineral nutrients, the cultivation of algae for metals is enhanced,
in particular, selected toxic heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb. It is believed that the level of elemental concentration
in algae samples are dependent on environmental conditions due to its biochemical properties. Therefore, algae materials may
be useful as an indicator or controller of environmental water pollution.
Authors:Yong Chung, Jong Moon, Young Chung, Seung Cho, and Sang Kang
The aim of this research was to enhance the use of nuclear analytical techniques for air pollution studies and to study the
feasibility of the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine monitoring tool to reveal environmental
pollution sources. For the collection of air particulate samples, the Gent stacked filter unit, low volume sampler with Nucleopore
membrane filters were used. Trace elements in samples collected at two suburban residential sites, Taejon and Wonju city in
the Republic of Korea, were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the elemental concentrations were measured monthly and the enrichment
factors were calculated for the fine (<2 μm EAD) and coarse size (2–10 μm EAD) fractions. The analytical data were treated
statistically to estimate the relationship between the two variables, the concentrations of elements and the total suspended
particulate matter. The results were used to describe the emission source and their correlation.
Authors:Yong Chung, Sun Kim, Gwang Sun, Jong Lim, Jong Moon, Kye Lee, and Hwa Yoo
The aim of the research is to find out better medicinal stuff for thyroid cancer patients who are required to have a low level
iodine diet. Iodine contents in 12 kinds of oriental herbal medicinal prescriptions, which are frequently used for thyroid
cancer patients, are determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The biological certified reference material
was used for analytical quality control. The relative errors and standard deviations for the iodine analysis were less than
2.88 and 18.5%, respectively. The level of iodine contents for four medicinal samples detected was in the range of about 3–210 mg/kg,
the concentrations of eight samples were estimated from the detection limit under the given analytical conditions. In addition,
the informative concentrations of 17 essential elements with special functions such as Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K,
Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in the samples were also determined together with their detection limits for data inter-comparison.
The relative errors and standard deviations for these elements were in the range of 0.1–18.0%, and 2–20%, respectively.
Authors:Yong Chung, Sun Kim, Gwang Sun, Jong Lim, Jong Moon, Kye Lee, Young Kim, Jong Choi, and Ju Lee
The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition
as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements.
Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a
fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical
quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward
the identification of irradiated foods.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Moon Jong-Hwa, Young-Jin Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
As part of an air pollution monitoring study, airborne particulate matter (PM2/PM10-2) samples were collected from 2000 to 2003 at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea. Mass concentrations
of both fine and coarse fractions and that of the black carbon in the fine particles were measured using the Gent stacked
filter unit sampler and the smoke stain reflectometer, respectively. In the collected samples the concentrations of 24 elements
were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Monitored data were investigated for their temporal trends under
different environmental conditions and their seasonal correlation patterns. Crustal enrichment factors were also estimated
to establish the contribution between anthropogenic and crustal origin. Patterns for airborne particle matter (APM) and elemental
concentrations, seasonal variation of some marker elements were investigated. The results can be applied for the investigation
of further air pollution sources and for the evaluation of air quality.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Young-Jin Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM2.5and PM10) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea
from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2)
method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust,
coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Hark-Rho Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler
and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass
concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the
collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment
factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified
Authors:Jong-Hwa Moon, Yong-Sam Chung, Kwang-Won Park, and Okhee Lee
Due to changes of the dietary pattern and life style, cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) have been
increasing in Korea. In this study, the levels of the serum minerals such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se for 75 patients
with CHD and 25 normal persons, who were older than the age of 40, were investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis.
For analytical quality control, the reference materials. INSPQ and Seronorm, were analyzed simultaneously. The relative errors
of the analytical values for the reference materials were within 10% of the certified values. The average concentrations of
Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of the male patients were 2,850±260 mg/1, 3,400±310 mg/l, 160±30 mg/l, 80.9±11.7
mg/l, 1.57±0.73 mg/l, 0.094±0.019 mg/l and 0.795±0.163 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and
Se in the serum of the female patients were 2,890±240 mg/l, 3,430±350 mg/l, 169±27 mg/l, 81.8±13.0 mg/l, 1.26±0.44 mg/l, 0.099±0.015
mg/l and 0.769±0.105 mg/l, respectively. In a comparison between the patients and the normal group for both genders, while
the levels of the elemental concentrations such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Se were similar, the Zn concentration level of the
CHD patients was significantly lower than that of the normal ones. The present study showed that the Zn concentration in the
serum could be associated with CHD in Korean adults.
Authors:Jong-Hwa Moon, Sun-Ha Kim, Yong-Sam Chung, and Young-Jin Kim
The k0-standardization method (k0-NAA) is known as one of the most remarkable progresses of the NAA with its many advantages. For the application of k0-NAA method at the NAA #1 irradiation position where the neutrons are well thermalized in the HANARO research reactor, KAERI,
Korea, the determination of the reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f have been carried out. The measured values of α and f using the “Cd-ratio” triple monitor method were 0.127±0.022 and 1010±70, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of k0-NAA in our analytical system, the analysis of three kinds of SRMs was executed. The analytical results showed that the relative
error of most of the elements was less than 10% and the U-scores were within 2. It is turned out that the procedure of the k0-NAA in the HANARO research reactor is available for a practical application in the environmental fields.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Jong-Hwa Moon, Sun-Ha Kim, Sang-Hoon Kang, and Young-Jin Kim
To enhance the applicability of the nuclear analytical technique in the field of industry and the environment, the inorganic
elemental content of the bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator was determined by instrumental neutron activation
analysis. Bottom ash samples were monthly collected from an incinerator located at a metropolitan city in Korea, strained
through a 5 mm sieve, dried by an oven and pulverized by an agate mortar. The samples were irradiated at the NAA #1 irradiation
hole (thermal neutron flux: 2.92·1013 n·cm−2·s−1) in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the irradiated samples were measured by
a HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometer. Thirty-three elements including As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn were analyzed by an absolute
method. The quality control was conducted by a simultaneous analysis with NIST standard reference materials. The average concentrations
of the major elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Na, Mg, K and Ti measured in the sample were 19.9%, 4.85%, 3.79%, 2.11%, 1.84%,
1.22% and 1.02%, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of the hazardous metals like Zn, Cu, Cr, Sb and As were 0.77%,
0.31%, 729 mg·kg−1, 116 mg·kg−1 and 22.2 mg·kg−1, respectively.