The crystallization behaviour of amorphous melt spun Fe82−x−yCr18ZrxBy (x=0–8, y=10–20) ribbons have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization temperature and
crystallization behaviour change with varzing Zr and B content.
The microstructural development during annealing of amorphous Fe64Cr18Zr8B10 has been investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Isothermal
annealing for 2 h at temperatures in the range 600–1000°C produces a variety of different microstructures depending on the
annealing temperature. At 600°C, the amorphous alloy partially crystallizes to a form a microstructure consisting of 9 nm
sized bee ferrite grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. At temperatures in the range 700–900°C, the alloy microstructure
transforms into a mixture of bee ferrite, faulted fcc MB12 boride particles and tetragonal M3B boride particles. At 1000°C, the faulted fcc MB12 boride particles are replaced by orthorhombic M4B boride particles.
Single screw extrusion of cassava starch was evaluated as a pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the extrudate and fermentation to yield alcohol. The acid concentration, barrel temperature and moisture content showed that all the variables were significant. Increasing acid concentration or barrel temperature induced starch depolymerisation with a higher water solubility index and lower water absorption index. At 20 and 24% moisture contents the cold paste viscosity decreased. As a result of the addition of acid during extrusion cooking the degree of starch hydrolysis resulted in low hot paste viscosity. Acid concentration was significant in the production of reducing sugars. At concentrations above 0.024 N, as the temperature increased, the reducing sugar content also increased. Nevertheless, at concentrations below 0.024 N, the reducing sugar content showed the opposite result. The best yield of alcohol obtained from the extruded starch was 98.7% (0.56 g of ethanol/g starch), which, on average, was 5.7% and 6.8% higher than that obtained from starch extruded without acid and from starch gelatinized by the conventional method, respectively.
In bread making the wheat dough undergoes some degree of deformation in each step of the process. It is generally accepted that the baking properties of wheat flour dough are mainly due to the viscoelasticity of the gluten protein. Measurement of the rheological properties of dough gives valuable information concerning the quality of the wheat flour, the machining properties of the dough and the textural characteristics of the finished products. This technique uses a new apparatus (wheat gluten quality analyser&WGQA, C HANG, 1994) especially developed to evaluate the rheological properties of gluten by measuring the following parameters: resistance to extension (newton), extensibility (mm) and energy (joule). The test realized with the apparatus WGQA was carried out on wheat gluten isolated according to the A.A.C.C. (1995) method. Results obtained using the new technique showed high levels of correlation for maximum resistance to extension (R 2 =0.9018) and energy (R 2 =0.8824) between WGQA and standardized parameters obtained from Brabender Extensograph.
Some stability and convergence theorems of the modified Ishikawa iterative sequences with errors for asymptotically nonexpansive
mapping in the intermediate sense and asymptotically pseudo contractive and uniformly Lipschitzian mappings in Banach spaces
Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is an effective method for isotopic and ultra-sensitivity determination of plutonium.
This project aims at improving the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) TIMS system sensitivity for the analysis
of plutonium from environmental samples. The TIMS detection limits for direct, electrodeposition, and resin bead source loading
techniques were determined by systematically varying the amount of plutonium loaded on the rhenium filament. It has been shown
in our preliminary work that the resin bead could produce a stable TIMS ion beam for as long as 6 h period with »108 Pu atoms loaded onto a single resin bead.
Authors:T. C. K. Yang, W. H. Chang, and D. S. Viswanath
Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and its mixtures with alumina, mullite and silica was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 323 to 1273 K. The analysis of the data was carried out using a three-dimensional diffusion model. Results showed that the kinetic parameters (activation energy and pre-exponential factor) of the PVB degradation are different for polymer alone, and ceramic/polymer composites. The overall weighted mean apparent activation energy showed an increasing reactivity in the order of PVB<alumina+PVB<mullite+PVB<silica+PVB. This shows that the acidic and basic surface characteristics of the ceramics promote the thermal degradation of PVB and, the more acidic silica affects the degradation more than mullite and alumina. The effect of pellet compression pressure in the range of 4000 to 8000 psig is also investigated.
research investigated the influence of binary solutions of benzene and methanol
for their vapor flammability characteristics. The different mixing ratios
(100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 vol%) samples were injected into a 20-liter
spherical explosion vessel under various initial temperatures (100, 150 and
200C) to study their flammability behaviors. According to the experimental
results, the flammability diagram of mixtures can be completely illustrated
and combined with specific safety-related properties such as lower explosion
limit (LEL), upper explosion limit (UEL), minimum oxygen concentration (MOC),
maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax),
and gas or vapor deflagration index (Kg).
The experimental results showed that the UEL, Pmax
and Kg all increased
with the temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration, whereas there was
no significant variation on the part of LEL. The results can provide specific
information on fire and explosion hazards for related industries.
Authors:C. Kim, C. Kim, B. Chang, S. Choi, C. Chung, G. Hong, K. Hirose, and H. Pettersson
239+240Pu concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in bottom sediments of the Yellow Sea, Korea Strait, East Sea (Sea of Japan), Sea of Okhotsk, and Northwest Pacific Ocean were determined. In coastal sediments near the Korean Peninsula, 239+240Pu concentrations varied from 0.02 to 1.72 Bq.kg-1, and their 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios from 0.15 to 0.24, with an average of 0.20±0.03. 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios of bottom sediments in the deep NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas (East, Okhotsk seas) were in the range of 0.15-0.23. A little elevated 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the bottom layer sediment may be due to Pu released into the environment during the pre-moratorium period, having high 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios and low 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratios.