The anatomical composition of the 4,000-years old Cedrus libaniremains from an archeological excavation is the same as the anatomical composition of xylem of recent Cedrus libani. The width of growth rings in the remains is narrow. The mean values are 0.82-1.78 mm. Within the growth ring, the early wood is wide and the late wood is fairly narrow. According to the growth ring widht series, as nowadays, too, unfavourable years alternated with more favourable ones. Length of tracheids were formed in the wider growth rings, and longer ones in the narrower. Within the length of tracheids increases from growth ring boundary to growth ring boundary.Frequencies of the length of tracheids within a growth ring show the Gaussian distribution. The tracheid cells end in normal tip. The cell wall thickness is thin (3.1 µm) in the early wood, and thick (9.6 µm) in the late wood. The cell lumen is wide in the early wood (44.3µm), and narrow in the late wood (23.8 µm).
The diatoms of bottom sediment core samples were studied from Lake Balaton. During the 1980s altogether 33 boreholes were drilled into the Quaternary layers down to 10-12 m. This paper presents the diatom flora and vegetation of 17 boreholes based on the legacy of Márta Hajós who spent 16 years working on this subject. The enumeration contains occurrences of 385 diatom taxa. It is hoped that this scientific account will serve as a “diatom databank” and helps better understanding of recent environmental changes in the larger area.
Authors:É. Nemes-Nikodém, E. Vörös, K. Pónyai, L. Párducz, S. Kárpáti, F. Rozgonyi and Eszter Ostorházi
From January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011, from 33,753 blood samples for syphilis screening, Treponema pallidum infections were confirmed in 241 pregnant women at the Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Dermatooncology of Semmelweis University Budapest. In this period, four children born to inadequately or untreated women were confirmed to have connatal syphilis. The height of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer was measured to determine the stage of the infection and to examine the success of the antilues therapy. The diagnosis of maternal syphilis infection was confirmed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and IgG and IgM immunoblots. Maternal IgM immunoblot results identify mothers at risk of delivering babies with connatal syphilis better than the height of maternal RPR titer. The standard serological tests are less useful in newborns because of IgG transfer across the placenta. IgM test which depends on the infant’s response has more specificity in diagnosing connatal syphilis.