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Metoprolol tartrate is rapidly absorbed from both gastric and intestinal regions, after oral administration. To retard the release rate of the metoprolol tartrate, microspheres were prepared with varying concentrations of a mixture containing ethylcellulose and polyethylene glycol-6000. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release. The percent yield of microspheres was in the range of 75.2–87.3%. The particle size of microspheres was found to be in the range of 73.2–85.5 μm. Fourier transform-infrared spectral analysis and differential scanning calorimetry concluded the absence of any interaction between the drug and the carriers. The release time profile of metoprolol tartrate from microspheres in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution was to the extent of 33.4–60.2%. The complete release of metoprolol tartrate occurred from MPT-3 and MPT-4 in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) within 8 and 7 h, respectively, whereas the incomplete release (72.3%) occurred from MPT-1. Nearly, the complete release (98.5%) of metoprolol occurred from MPT-2 in 10 h. Formulation MPT-2 would be a preferred formulation. The release of metoprolol involves diffusion rate limited (R 2 = 0.9865) as a mechanism from drug release. The prepared microspheres of metoprolol tartrate eliminate the need for multiple dosing and provide patient compliance.

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Autoimmune hepatitis is defined as chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology with aberrant autoreactivity and genetic predisposition. It is characterized by female predominance, circulating auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia and association with HLA DR3 and HLA DR4 [1]. Differential diagnosis includes chronic viral hepatitis, drug induced hepatitis and alcohol. We present two patients with autoimmune hepatitis representing the two extremes of hepatic involvement in this condition. The first patient is a young lady who was diagnosed with autoimmune chronic hepatitis. The second patient, on the other hand, is an elderly gentleman who presented to us with autoimmune hepatitis-related decompensated cirrhosis of liver.

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Introduction: The aim of this study is to compare Knodell and HAI scores in patients with wild type and precore/core promoter mutant CHB to see if there is any difference in severity of liver injury between these two types of HBV. Methods: We did percutaneous liver biopsies of 155 CHB patients. 102 (65.8%) of them were infected wild type HBV and the rest 53 (34.2%) were infected with precore/core promoter mutant CHB. Results: 11/53 (20.8%) patients with precore/core promoter mutant CHB had moderate to severe CH (HAI score 8–18). In contrast, moderate to severe CH was seen in 19/102 (18.6%) patients with wild type CHB. Fibrosis score was >2 in 15/53 (28.3%) precore/core promoter mutant CHB as opposed to 20/102 (19.6%) patients with wild type CHB. Conclusion: The study shows that precore/core promoter mutant HBV produces more severe histologic liver disease compared to wild type HBV.

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Introduction

During the manufacturing of sterile drugs, it is of the utmost importance to meet the minimum requirements for asepsis recommended by the legislations on good manufacturing practices-based efficient environmental monitoring.

Aims and methods

The availability of relatively simple to use matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectromtomy (MALDI-TOF MS) devices in the last years has changed the laboratory workflows for the microbial identification, mainly in the clinical area. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of the MALDI-TOF MS technique for the identification of bacteria isolated from the environment of clean rooms used in some stages of the production of a viral vaccine. Eighteen known bacterial species commonly isolated from clean rooms studied were identified by MALDI-TOF technique and by a biochemical technique (BBL Crystal® System).

Results

Performance of MALDI-TOF MS was better than biochemical technique for correct species identifications (88.89% and 38.89%, respectively) and produced less unreliable identification (5.55% and 22.22%).

Conclusion

MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented for routine identification of bacteria in a pharmaceutical quality control laboratory, but as a database-dependent system, maybe some isolated not identified by this technique must be additionally studied and, if appropriate, added to an in-house database.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Kamal Dua, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto and Philip Michael Hansbro

Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can help paving a new path in developing effective drug delivery system.

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Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal
Authors: Mamun-Al-Mahtab, Kabir Uddin, Salimur Rahman, Mobin Khan, Kamal, Moniruzzaman Bhuiyan and Gulzar Hussain

Abstract

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune liver disease, not infrequent in the West, but hardly reported from the East. We report a case of PBC for the first time from Bangladesh. The patient was an elderly woman presenting with vague complaints. The diagnosis was confirmed by antibody testing and histopathology, whereas other possible causes of cirrhosis were also excluded.

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the histological activity index and viral load, which one response more with lamivudine, an anti-viral agent used for treating chronic hepatitis B infected patients.

Materials and methods

Following the defined case selection protocol a total of 39 CHB cases were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation they received with lamivudine orally for 52 weeks. Repeat biopsy could be obtained in 16 cases. 16 patients were analysed in this study. All patients had a liver biopsy at the beginning of the study before starting the drug. Lamivudine was given orally at a dose of 100 mg once daily for 52 weeks. A second liver biopsy was taken for comparison at the end of week 52. Biopsy materials were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining as a routine procedure. Immunohistochemical staining for both surface and core antigens by using antibodies against these antigens were done as special staining. In routine staining biopsies were scored according to Knodell's Histological Activity Index (HAI). Improvements in histological activity index were regarded in cases where Knodell's HAI improved by 2 points or more after treatment. Both Viral Load and staining intensity of each antigen were assessed by visual inspection of 300 hepatocytes randomly under light microscope.

Results

68% (11/16) patients had a reduction of hepatic necroinflammatory HAI score (Components 1 through 3) by 2 points or more at the end of 52 weeks of lamivudine therapy compared to the pretreatment values. Improvement in viral load was found in 80% (12/15) cases. Staining intensity of both viral antibodies was also decreased following treatment.

Discussion

One of the key objectives of treatment of chronic hepatitis B remains to improve hepatic histology in addition to clearing the virus. The quest continues in this regard and antivirals are potential tools at hand in achieving this goal.

Conclusion

Lamivudine causes significant improvement in viral load in the majority of patients treated for CHB.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ottó Szenci, Kamal Touati, Noelita Melo De Sousa, Jean-Luc Hornick, Gijsbert Cornelis Van der Weyden, Marcel Antonie Marie Taverne and Jean-François Beckers

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to further develop and extensively describe a surgical technique in order to realise long-term fetal blood sampling in the bovine species. Eleven Holstein–Friesian 6- to 8-month pregnant cows (4–10 years old) were used for this study. Gestational age on the day of surgery varied from approximately 180 days (n = 1) to 240 days (minimum: 232 days, maximum 252 days; n = 10). The fetal medial tarsal artery was catheterised in pregnant cows with a polyvinyl catheter in dorsal recumbency under general anaesthesia. Although 5 out of 11 operations (45.5%) performed between 232 and 252 days of gestation were lost due to different causes mainly associated with peritonitis and septicaemia, the mean interval between operations and calvings was 42.5 days (between 27 and 95 days). It is important to emphasise that a well-trained surgical team is needed for bovine fetal cannulation in order to be able to decrease the risk factors during the operations. Due to the fact that after 5 unsuccessful cases none of the pregnancies were lost, this skill can be reached, and our technique can enable bovine fetal blood sampling for long-term endocrinological and physiological investigations before and during parturition.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Kamal Dua, Venkata Ramana Malipeddi, Jyotsna Madan, Gaurav Gupta, Srikumar Chakravarthi, Rajendra Awasthi, Irene Satiko Kikuchi and Terezinha De Jesus Andreoli Pinto

Introduction

Our various previous findings have shown the suitability of norfloxacin in the treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds in alone as well as in combination with Curcuma longa in various topical (ointments, gels, and creams) and transdermal drug delivery systems.

Aims and methods

Keeping these facts in consideration, we have made an another attempt to prepare semisolid formulations containing 1% w/w of norfloxacin and metronidazole with different bases like Carbopol, polyethylene glycol, and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose for effective treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds. The prepared formulations were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity, and burn wound healing properties.

Results

The prepared formulations were compared with Silver Sulfadiazine cream 1%, USP. Antimicrobial activity of norfloxacin semisolid formulations was found to be equally effective against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in comparison to a marketed formulation of Silver Sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP. Based on the burn wound healing property, the prepared norfloxacin semisolid formulation was found to be in good agreement with marketed Silver Sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP.

Conclusions

These findings suggest formulations containing norfloxacin and metronidazole may also prove as an effective alternative for existing remedies in the treatment of bacterial infections and burn wounds.

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