Authors:Gábor Szilágyi, Katalin Náfrádi and Pál Sümegi
The aim of this study is to identify the milestones of landscape evolution around the Ecse Mound (Karcag-Kunmadaras, Hortobágy National Park, Hungary) in the Holocene period by sedimentological and malacological analysis of strata underneath and within the body of the kurgan concerned, including that of the same characteristics of the artificially piled layers. An undisturbed core drilling was carried out and the sedimentological properties of both the mound and of the substrate baserock were revealed, analysis of which has been supported by three radiocarbon (AMS) measurements. The baserock formation during the last phase of the Ice Age, Middle and Upper Pleniglacial, and Late Glacial phases was followed by soil development in the Holocene, while the mound was constructed in two phases at the end of the Copper Age by the communities of the Pit Grave (Yamna or Ochre Grave) Culture. By publishing these preliminary data, it is also intended to draw attention to the need of focused research efforts by standardized methodology in kurgan research, in order to make the results of different studies consistent and comparable.
Authors:Katalin Náfrádi, Gergő Persaits and Pál Sümegi
Environmental historical analyses, including sedimentological, pedological, palynological, archeobotanical and phytolith analyses were carried out on samples derived from the Kadicsfalva/Cãdiseni archeological site. Our aim was to provide paleoenvironmental data to the archeological results in order to reconstruct the former milieu of the Gothic population, and to provide information regarding their environment management. At the end of the Pleistocene loess and alluvial loess developed from the eolian dust that accumulated on the wet surfaces of the Pleistocene sediments. The site provided favorable conditions to host a settlement and supports its long-term colonization owning to the riverside terrace surface location. The comparative analysis of the recent and the Gothic soil horizon proved that the recent soil horizon is over-utilized; its productivity can be maintained only by intensive fertilization and almost every one of its parameters is below the element and nutrient composition of the Gothic soil horizon.