This paper compares narrative modiﬁcation in the Mongolian heroic epic The Epic of Geser with that of the Buddhist Mulian story. The Mulian story, in which the protagonist saves his mother from the underworld gained widespread popularity in its time. Mulian Bianwen from the Tang dynasty, presents the scenes from the story in a very dramatic manner. The Mongolian Geser epic uses this motif but adapts the story to ﬁt the characteristics of a heroic epic for nomadic people. Heroic epics must contain motifs that depict the image of their protagonist to present a collection of exemplary characters. To create a complete heroic epic, the story of Geser absorbed a religious story from another culture that was very popular at the time. In the present study, ﬁve scenes common to The Epic of Geser and the Mulian story are analysed to investigate how the original Buddhist story became a part of the heroic epic. This analysis considers the ways in which identical story motifs can be used for the different purposes according to the nature of the literary work.
Authors:Chun-Nam Cha, Won-Chul Jung, Hyunju Choi, Yeo Lee, Chang-Yeul Yoo, Suk Kim, and Hu-Jang Lee
The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to different doses of sodium chlorate in 10-week-old pigs. Twenty pigs were divided into four equal groups and treated with different doses of sodium chlorate: 0, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg−1 body weight per day via the drinking water for 7 consecutive days. The results showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in red blood cell and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.001) and creatinine levels, and an increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05) activities in swine administered sodium chlorate at a dose of 500 mg kg−1 body weight per day. The histopathological study revealed increased numbers of vacuoles in the convoluted tubules, tubular necrosis and degeneration of the renal tubular epithelial cells, depletion of nuclei and lobular necrosis of the liver in all pigs treated with sodium chlorate at 500 mg kg−1 body weight per day. Thus, 7-day administration of sodium chlorate at 500 mg kg−1 body weight per day to pigs affects the liver and kidney tissues as well as the haematologic and serum biochemical parameters.