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Author: László Fodor
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Sixty-eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains were isolated from porcine acute pleuropneumonia cases from different parts of Hungary between 2000 and 2014. A total of 41 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae bio-type I and 27 strains as biotype II based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic fingerprinting in the species-level identification of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. Utilisation of carbon sources by these field isolates and six reference strains was characterised by the Biolog system (GN2 Microplate, MicroLog3 Version 4.20.05 software). Twenty-nine field strains were correctly identified by the Biolog system as A. pleuropneumoniae, 36 strains as A. lignieresii, two strains as H. paraphrohaemolyticus and one strain as A. equuli after 24 h of incubation. Among the six A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains the Biolog system identified one strain as A. pleuropneumoniae, four as A. lignieresii and one as H. paraphrohaemolyticus. There was no correlation between biotypes and serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and the carbon source utilisation pattern and species identification by the Biolog system. our data indicate that the efficacy of the Biolog system used here could be improved by including phenotypes of more A. pleuropneumoniae strains representing a wider geographical occurrence into the database.

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Authors: Rita Sárközi, László Makrai and László Fodor

A total of 255 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates were collected from 634 lung samples representing 70 swine herds in Hungary between January 2012 and June 2016. On the basis of the indirect haemagglutination test 77 independent strains were included in the evaluation after the elimination of duplicate or multiple serotypes from the same herd. In the case of 7 herds strains of two different serotypes were identified. Fourteen Hungarian A. pleuropneumoniae isolates from the culture collection of the Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, isolated before 2012, were also included in the evaluation (one each from 12 herds and two each from two herds, where two serotypes occurred). Out of the altogether 91 A. pleuropneumoniae strains 72 strains belonged to biotype I and 19 strains could be allocated to biotype II. In Hungary, the most common serotypes were serotype 2 (39.5%), 13 (15.4%), 8 (8.8%) and 16 (8.8%), but serotypes 9 (5.5%), 11 (3.3%) and 12 (3.3%) were also isolated. Twelve strains (13.2%) were untypable.

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Authors: László Makrai, László Fodor, István Hajtós, János Varga and Béla Dénes

Three new serotypes were found among Rhodococcus equi strains, which could not be assigned into any of the seven serotypes of Prescott’s system. Fortythree R. equi strains out of 44 previously nontypable ones isolated in Hungary could be allocated into one of the three new serotypes using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The three new suggested serotypes are serotype 8 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138003), serotype 9 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138004) and serotype 10 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138005). Hyperimmune sera produced in rabbits against the new serotypes and reference strains gave precipitation only with their homologous antigens, and no crossreactions were observed. All of the previously nontypable isolates from clinical samples of horses (lung abscesses, intestinal lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes) proved to be serotype 8, while strains of serotypes 8, 9 and 10 could be isolated from nasal and rectal swabs of horses and from the soil. Serotype 9 dominated among the previously nontypable strains of swine origin. One of the previously nontypable human strains was serotype 10. This serotype was also isolated from pigs, horses and the soil. The description of the three new serotypes can help us reveal new correlations between the host species, geographical origin and serotype of R. equi isolates.

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Authors: László Fodor, Katalin Jánosi, László Makrai and Miklós Gyuranecz

A total of 860 serum samples collected at 86 cattle farms in different parts of Hungary were screened for the presence of antibodies to Mycoplasma bovis using an ELISA test with a recombinant M. bovis membrane protein as antigen. Antibodies to M. bovis were detected in sera collected on all farms, and no farms negative for M. bovis were found. In 88.38% of the herds more than 50% of the sampled animals were infected by M. bovis. A total of 82.91% of the animals had antibodies to M. bovis. The proportion of seropositive animals was higher in the older age groups, and a significant difference was seen in the level of seropositivity between young and older age groups. The results show that M. bovis infection is widespread on Hungarian dairy farms, and its prevalence has increased in the recent decade. The high infection rate of Hungarian cattle herds with M. bovis shows that special attention should be paid to evaluating the aetiological role of M. bovis in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) cases because M. bovis has an immunosuppressive effect and can predispose cattle to other respiratory infections, too.

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Authors: László Makrai, Béla Dénes, István Hajtós, László Fodor and János Varga

Two hundred and twelve Rhodococcus equi strains were isolated from soil, nasal and rectal swabs of horses and immunocompromised human patients in Hungary and serotyped using Prescott’s serotyping system. One hundred and forty-seven strains (69.3%) belonged to serotype 1, 22 strains (10.4%) to serotype 2, 6 strains (2.8%) to serotype 3 and 1 strain (0.5%) to serotype 4. Serotypes 5, 6 and 7 were not found and 36 strains (17%) could not be typed. Serotype 1 (72%) was the type most commonly isolated from clinical samples of foals or from the soil of horse facilities. Six out of 8 R. equi strains from humans belonged to serotype 2, and two human strains were untypable. The data show that the prevalence of R. equi serotypes varies in different geographic areas of the country.

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Authors: László Gyarmathy, Géza Varjas, Tibor Major, János Fodor and Miklós Kásler

Absztrakt

Hazánkban ötven évvel ezelőtt, 1958-ban az Országos Onkológiai Intézetben egy Gravicert típusú készülékkel kezeltük az első beteget telekobalt-besugárzással. Az évforduló alkalmából áttekintjük a hazai kobalt-teleterápia első 50 évének a történetét és tárgyaljuk annak mai szerepét. Az első hazai kobaltágyú (Gravicert) Bozóky László tervei alapján készült, hét évvel a világon elsőként Kanadában üzembe helyezett kobaltágyú után. A Co-60-sugárforrás megavoltos (átlagenergia: 1,25 MeV) gammasugárzása lehetővé tette a mélyebben fekvő daganatok eredményesebb kezelését a röntgenterápiához képest. A következő két-három évtizedben, a nagyenergiájú lineáris gyorsítók elterjedéséig, a Co-60-teleterápia jelentette a korszerű sugárkezelést az egész világon. A besugárzási technika minőségi javulása szükségessé tette a daganatok pontosabb lokalizálását és a besugárzástervezési módszerek továbbfejlesztését is. Kezdetben a lokalizálás röntgenkészülékkel, a dóziseloszlás-számolás manuális módszerrel történt. 1965-ben egy Rotacert típusú kobaltágyút telepítettek intézetünkben, mely már többirányú és forgó besugárzásra is alkalmas volt. Hazánkban, több lépésben a többi sugárterápiás központban is telepítettek kobaltágyúkat, kezdetben Gravicerteket, majd később már külföldi készülékeket. A kezelések minőségét lényegesen javította a számítógépes besugárzástervezés bevezetése, melynek fontos eleme volt az 1978-ban a NAÜ támogatásával létrejött Országos Besugárzástervezési Hálózat. A következő jelentős fejlődést a CT-képekre alapozott dózistervezés bevezetése jelentette 1981-ben. A korszerű lineáris gyorsítók elterjedésével a kobaltágyúk szerepe ma már jelentősen csökkent, de napjainkban még közel 2500 kobaltágyú működik világszerte. Technikai fejlesztésekkel a használatukat azonban még tovább lehetne növelni. Jelenleg hazánkban még nyolc sugárterápiás központban végeznek sugárkezelést kobaltágyúval.

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Authors: Andrea Fodor, András Győrffy, László Orosz and Tamás Major

Az összefoglaló közlemény irodalmi adatokra hivatkozva a terhesség alatti haemorrheologiai változásokat és azok praeeclampsiában mutatott klinikai jelentőségét ismerteti. A praeeclampsia proteinuriával (legalább 0,3 g/nap) kísért, a 20. gesztációs héttől a post partum 6. hétig fellépő magas vérnyomásos állapot (RR ≥140/90 Hgmm). Etiológiája összetett, a patomechanizmus középpontjában a vegetatív idegrendszer, a placenta és a keringési rendszer közötti együttműködési zavar húzódik. A placenta szolúbilis faktorainak segítségével a keringés változását közvetíti, amelyhez fiziológiás esetben mind a vegetatív idegrendszer, mind a keringés adaptálódik. Ennek kisiklása azonban fokozott turbulenciához vezet, amelynek nyomán a keringésben részt vevő elemek kezdetben lokális, majd generalizált progresszív károsodása figyelhető meg. Később a károsodott elemek saját maguk is tovább erősítik a kórfolyamatot, végeredményként instabil keringési állapotot és szervkárosodásokat okozhat. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 205–211.

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Authors: Katalin Jánosi, László Stipkovits, Róbert Glávits, Tamás Molnár, László Makrai, Miklós Gyuranecz, János Varga and László Fodor

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an aerosol infection method with Histophilus somni that closely resembles the natural way of infection of calves. Another aim was to compare the virulence of two H. somni strains by collecting clinical and postmortem data of experimentally infected and control animals. Seventeen conventionally reared 3-month-old calves were divided into three groups. Two groups of six animals each were exposed to suspensions containing H. somni on three consecutive days using a vaporiser mask. The third group of five animals was used as control. The data of individual clinical examination were recorded daily. All animals were exterminated, and gross pathology of all lungs was evaluated on the 15th day after the first infection. Both H. somni strains caused an increase of rectal temperature, respiratory signs, decrease of weight gain, and severe catarrhal bronchopneumonia in both infected groups. Although some chronic lesions were detected in the lungs of the control animals as well, the histopathological findings in the infected and control groups were different. H. somni was recultured from all lungs in the challenged groups but it could not be reisolated or detected by PCR examination in the control group. This is the first paper on aerosol challenge of calves with H. somni using repeated infection and verified by detailed pathological, bacteriological and histopathological examination. The infection method proved to be successful. There was no difference in the virulence of the two H. somni strains used in the trial.

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