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The recently encountered Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Iharkút terrestrial vertebrate locality has yielded several vertebrate taxa since its discovery. Scincomorphan lizards are also represented in this fauna by several jaw fragments. The most abundant of these is represented by seven dentary fragments and an indeterminate jaw fragment with characteristic teeth. The hypertrophied splenial, the heterodont dentition, the cementum deposition at the bases of the teeth, and the large subcircular resorption pits assign this type to the family Teiidae. The dentition is composed of conical, monocuspid teeth in the mesial region and transversely widened bicuspid teeth in the distal region. This morphology is well known in members of the subfamily Polyglyphanodontinae. Based on their dental morphology the Iharkút finds can be easily assigned to the genus Bicuspidon. This genus is known from two species, B. numerosus Nydam et Cifelli 2002 from the Albian-Cenomanian of Utah (North America) and B. hatzegiensis Folie et Codrea 2005 from the Maastrichtian of the Hat¸eg Basin (Transylvania, eastern Europe). The Hungarian specimens differ from Bicuspidon numerosus in that the latter has bicuspid teeth in the distal part of the tooth row, in contrast to the Hungarian species, which has two monocuspid teeth in the distal region, one equal to the size of the preceding teeth, and one less than half the size of the former one. The presence of monocuspid teeth at the end of the tooth row resembles B. hatzegiensis, but since the very end of the tooth row of the latter is not known it is not possible to determine if B. hatzegiensis also has two monocuspid teeth distally. Thus it is not impossible that the Hungarian specimens represent a new species, but at present the lack of necessary information allows its determination only as Bicuspidon aff. hatzegiensis.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: László Simon, Marianna Makádi, György Vincze, Zsuzsanna Uri, Katalin Irinyiné Oláh, László Zsombik, Szabolcs Vígh, and Béla Szabó

A small-plot long-term field fertilization experiment was set up in 2011 with willow (Salix triandra x Salix viminalis ’Inger’) grown as an energy crop in Nyíregyháza, Hungary. The brown forest soil was treated three times (in June 2011, May 2013, May 2016) with municipal biocompost (MBC), municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) or willow ash (WA), and twice (June 2011, May 2013) with rhyolite tuff (RT). In late May – early June 2016 urea (U) and sulphuric urea (SU) fertilizers were also applied to the soil as top-dressing (TD). These fertilizers and amendments were also applied to the soil in 2016 in the combinations; MBC+SU, RT+SU, WA+SU and MSSC+WA. All the treatments were repeated four times. In July 2016 the highest nitrogen concentrations in willow leaves were measured in the U (3.47 m/m%) and SU (3.01 m/m%) treatments, and these values were significantly higher than the control (2.46 m/m%). An excess of nitrogen considerably reduced the Zn uptake of the leaves, with values of 39.5 μg g-1 in the U treatment, 53.4 μg g-1 in the SU treatment, and 63.5 μg g-1 in the control. All other amendments or TDs, except for WA, enhanced the specific potassium concentrations in willow leaves compared to the control. No significant quantities of toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Pb) were transported from soil amendments or TDs to the willow leaves. In July 2016 the most intensive leaf chlorophyll fluorescence was observed in the MSSC and MSSC+WA treatments.

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Central European Geology
Authors: Attila Ősi, Gábor Botfalvai, Edina Prondvai, Zsófia Hajdu, Gábor Czirják, Zoltán Szentesi, Emília Pozsgai, Annette E. Götz, László Makádi, Dóra Csengődi, and Krisztina Sebe


Remains of Triassic vertebrates discovered in the Villány Hills (SW Hungary) are described here. After the well-documented Late Cretaceous Iharkút locality, this material represents the second systematically collected assemblage of Mesozoic vertebrates from Hungary. Fossils were collected from both the classical abandoned road-cut at Templom Hill (Templom-hegy) and a newly discovered site at a construction zone located 200 meters west of the road-cut. Macrofossils of the construction site are mainly isolated bones and teeth of nothosaurs from the Templomhegy Dolomite, including a fragmentary mandible referred to as Nothosaurus sp. and placodont teeth tentatively assigned here to cf. Cyamodus sp. Affinities of these fossils suggest a Middle Triassic (Ladinian) age of these shallow marine deposits.

New palynological data prove for the first time a Late Triassic (Carnian) age of the lower part of the Mészhegy Sandstone Formation. Vertebrate remains discovered in this formation clearly represent a typical Late Triassic shallow-marine fauna including both chondrichthyan (Lissodus, Palaeobates, Hybodus) and osteichthyan (cf. Saurichthys, ?Sphaerodus sp.) fish fossils. The presence of reworked nothosaur and placodont tooth fragments as well as of possible archosauriform teeth, suggest an increase of terrestrial influence and the erosion of underlying Triassic deposits during the Late Triassic.

A belemnite rostrum collected from the lowermost beds of the Somssichhegy Limestone Formation proves that this Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian) layer was deposited in a marine environment. Most of the vertebrate remains (nothosaurs, placodonts, hybodont shark teeth, perhaps Palaeobates, Lissodus) recovered from these beds are also reworked Triassic elements strongly supporting an erosive, nearshore depositional environment.

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