Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 37 items for :

  • Author or Editor: L. Nagy x
  • Chemistry and Chemical Engineering x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract  

The present state of a long term program is reviewed. It was started to elaborate a remote controlled automated radiochemical processing system for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials. The system is based on wet ashing of the sample, followed by reactive desorption of some volatile components. The distillation residue is passed through a series of columns filled with selective ion screening materials to remove the matrix activity. The solution is thus “stripped” from the interfering radioions, and it is processed to single-elements through group separations using ion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Some special problems concerning this system are treated. (a) General aspects of the construction of a (semi)automated radiochemical processing system are discussed; (b) Comparison is made between various technical realizations of the same basic concept; (c) Some problems concerning the “reconstruction” of an already published processing system are outlined.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The G-1 intercomparison is one of the first undertakings of the International Atomic Energy Agency for the investigation of the performance of the routinely used evaluating programs for gamma ray spectra of semiconductor detectors. The details and the conclusions of this procedure are presented.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A quantitative method for the analysis of -emitters in infinitely thin and thick samples was described in Part I. The calculation of errors in intensity, intensity ratio and activity concentration is discussed here in detail. Different definitions of detection sensitivity are compared and evaluated on the basis of the relative statistical error associated therewith. Dependence between the relative error of the net signal and the required measurement time is deduced and illustrated.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A method for determining bulk or surface activity concentration of -emitters in infinitely thick or thin samples using energy selective detectors without any prior chemical separation or qualitative analysis was introduced in Part I. In addition to that method, a correction procedure is often required in order to compensate for the -sensitivity of the -detector. A system or two — preferably identical —detectors positioned to the front and rear side of a sample has been established. The rear side detector is shielded against -radiation. The -response of both detectors is determined as a function of -energy using monoenergetic calibration standards. Response pulses are selected to form 8 or 16 energy intervals, and separate series of correction coefficients are then computed for each interval and standard energy using the ratio of the respective counts. When a sample having mixed - and -radiation is evaluated, an effective -energy is first calculated from the pulse height distribution of the rear side detector, the appropriate series of correction coefficients is selected and finally net -counts are generated from the counts of the front side detector. Sensitivities in natural and elevated -background are presented.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The activity concentration of bulk and surface samples contaminated with -emitting radioisotopes is difficult to measure without the a priori knowledge of the nature of the non-gamma emitting components. Beta-emitters cannot be identified from any measured spectral distribution. The counting efficiency of the measuring system changes significantly with -energy so it cannot be assumed to have a single value obtained with a standard source with known energy. Application of an energy selective -detector is introduced for determining bulk and surface activity concentration. Samples of infinitely thick or infinitelythin nature are to be prepared. The distribution of -energy deposited in the detector is registered as counts in 8 or 16 energy intervals. No information is needed on the qualitative composition of the sample. Normalised integral distributions (intensity ratios) are derived from the count rates of the intervals. These distributions are then compared to calibrated intensity ratios obtained with suitable standard sources. An average (effective) counting efficiency is generated from this comparison by a special algorithm. Activity concentration of an unknown sample is then obtained using this average efficiency. Calibration and sensitivity data are presented for different types of bulk and surface samples.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Investigations on the disintegration rate of fission products of238U and239Pu are presented. The intensity of the - and -radiation of fission products were measured continuously in an interval of 1–1300 hours following the fission, offering the possibility for determining the general and specific characteristics of the individual fission products. A universal measuring procedure was elaborated for the rapid in situ determination of the dosimetric features of fission products, which is suitable for the accurate evaluation and prediction of external absorbed dose even in case of fission products of various origin and unknown composition.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Based on the method of SAMSAHL a programmed, semi-automated processing system has been developed and tested for the neutron activation analysis of the following elements: As, Se, Sb, Br, Sn and Te. The main characteristics of the procedure are the following: wet ashing of the sample (by means of digestion in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide), bromination, and chlorination. The procedure is controlled via the appropriate dosage of the reagents and a carefully managed thermal balance. The chemical yield and its reproducibility were determined by tracer techniques using exactly the same parameters as for the active runs. According to the results the method can be used for the routine determination of the given elements except antimony.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Mössbauer and temperature dependent EPR spectra of three iron/III/ complexes, formed with sugar type ligands /galactose, sorbitol and 1,2-propylene glycol/ were investigated. Measurements showed antiferromagnetic interaction between the iron/III/ central atoms in the specimens. On the basis of the EPR data the temperature dependence of partial susceptibilities of isolated and interacting iron/III/ centres could be determined.

Restricted access

Abstract  

For the selective removal of the matrix activity (24Na,32P and42K) in the neutron activation analysis of biomedical samples the inorganic separators “hydrated antimony pentoxide”, zirconium phosphate, and titanium phosphate were prepared. The sorption parameters of the samples were determined via elution chromatography techniques, with appropriate tracers. The basic principles of the sorption processes were investigated, and the experimental conditions were optimized. These inorganic separators were then applied, combined with a distillation procedure and an ion-exchange separation, for the determination of the following trace elements in animal blood samples: Mn, Co, Cu, Fe and Zn.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The complexes of six organic carboxylic acids (containing {O,O} donor atoms) with Bu2Sn(IV)2+ and Ph3Sn(IV)+ with ligand to metal ratios of 1 : 1 and 1 : 2, were prepared by two different methods. The FtIR and Raman spectra clearly demonstrated that the organotin(IV) moieties react with the {O,O} atoms of the ligands. It was found that in most cases the -COO-group was chelated to the central metal ions, but monodentate coordination was also sometimes observed. Complex formation was accompanied by a rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network existing in the ligands. The complexes probably have polymeric structures. Comparison of the experimental Mössbauer D values with those calculated on the basis of the point charge model formalism revealed that the organotin(IV) moiety has a trigonal-bipyramidal (tbp) geometry, and in certain cases a tetrahedral (tetr) geometry too. Finally, the local structure of the maleic acid complex formed with Bu2Sn(IV)2+ was determined by an EXAFS method.

Restricted access