The environmental changes that occurred in different periods can be identified through the increase or decrease of the concentrations
of metals and other substances throughout sediment cores. The purpose of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Cs, Eu,
K, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, U and V in a sediment core collected from São Paulo State South Seashore. Instrumental neutron
activation analysis followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used. Results showed an abrupt decrease in
the concentration of all elements in the 132–134 cm layer depth. This finding indicates an impact of anthropic activity.
This paper describes an evaluation of activation analysis by delayed neutron counting to determine uranium and thorium simultaneously in geological materials and to measure235U/238U isotopic ratios. A procedure to isolate the thorium before the irradiation was studied and adapted for use when the interference of uranium makes the nondestructive thorium analysis impossible.235U/238U ratios were determined in standards with235U abundances from about 0.5 to 93%, in milligram size samples. Discussion on precision, accuracy and total error of the method is presented.
A purely instrumental method for the determination of Mo in uranium containing materials is presented. The precision and accuracy were verified by the analysis of several Standard Reference Materials with different proportions of Mo and U. Detection limits varied from 0.8 to 1.3 g/g for Mo. The method can be applied to determine Mo in the studies of agricultural zone characterization.
Authors:M. Armelin, R. Piasentin, and O. Primavesi
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages.
Authors:M. Vasconcellos, M. Armelin, A. Figueiredo, B. Mazzilli, and M. Saiki
In the present work, a comparative study is made among nuclear methods for235U/238U ratios determination: activation analysis followed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, delayed neutron counting, passive gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry. Activation analysis followed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry yielded a relative standard deviation down to 0.1% and a relative error of about 1% for standards of uranium enriched to 14%. Passive gamma-ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors yielded a relative error down to 0.1% for enriched uranium and values even lower for the standard deviation. Passive gamma-ray spectrometry using Low Energy Photon Detector (LEPD) yielded a precision of 0.2% and a still better accuracy for enriched standards. In the case of alpha spectrometry, a relative error down to 0.5% and a precision of about 1% were obtained, also for enriched uranium standards. Delayed neutron counting allowed a relative standard deviation of about 7% and a relative error of about 2%, for standards of depleted uranium.
Authors:C. Teruya, M. Armelin, J. Filho, A. Silva, and M. Saiki
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with gamma-ray spectrometry was applied to determine As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se and Zn in the Brazilian agroindustrial by-products. These materials are widely used in ruminant feeding. The results obtained were compared with requirement and maximum tolerable concentrations. The general conclusions from the data obtained were: (1) many by-products presented concentrations of some essential elements lower than the requirement concentrations, while in some concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mg and Se exceeded by a little the maximum tolerable concentrations, (2) the elements As, Cd, Hg and Sb, generally considered toxic, showed concentrations lower than maximum tolerable values.
Authors:R. Piasentin, M. Armelin, O. Primavesi, and M. Saiki
Leaf samples of two varieties of Cajanus cajan Millsp were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were taken from plants grown under two fertilizer dose conditions, making use of the following microminerals: Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn, which were applied individually to the soil. The samples were collected in two cutting times. We verify the variation in the absorption of each element, considering its availability in the soil.
Authors:M. Armelin, M. Vasconcellos, E. Pereira, and F. Sircilli Neto
A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure is described for the determination of concentration levels of iridium in sedimentary rocks and in the geochemical standard PCC-1. After irradiation, the powdered rock samples and standard are dissolved with a mixture of HF, HNO3 and HClO4 in a teflon bomb. The final solution obtained, in dilute HCl, is passed through a column containing the cationic resin Bio Rad AG 50W-X8. The interfening radionuclides are sorbed by the resin. The effluent solution containing iridium is concentrated for counting by evaporation. Experiments with radioactive tracer for checking radiochemical separation yield are carried out. The accuracy of the method is evaluated by means of analysis of the USGS standard rock peridotite, PCC-1. The precision is about 25% in the ppb range. The method is used for the determination of iridium in 16 samples of sedimentary rocks collected at different depths in the Campos basin-RJ (BRAZIL).
Authors:M. Armelin, R. Ávila, R. Piasentin, and M. Saiki
The supplement effect of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn chelated with glycine on the absorption of these elements by animals was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by comparing the mineral concentrations found in hair of the animals before and after 47 days of supplementation with a combination of glycine-mineral chelates. Five horses known to be clinically well were used for this study. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn concentrations in the horse hair samples. It was observed that the supplementation helps the Fe, K and Zn absorption by the animal organism. The data obtained suggest that the hair is a suitable material to investigate Fe, K and Zn in mineral metabolism in the animal organism.
Authors:M. Armelin, O. Primavesi, A. Primavesi, and M. Saiki
To restore a degraded pasture of Brachiaria decumbens, located in São Carlos — SP, southeastern Brazil, under altitude tropical climate, an experiment was carried out to study
the effects of limestone, buried or not buried in the soil, and fertilizer use on mineral content and forage yield, after
3 years of treatment. Limestone and phosphorus were applied once, one month before starting. NK were applied after each cutting,
for fertilized plots, four to five times a year. Experimental design was a random block (100 m2), with 6 replications and 4 treatments. Each block received 4 t/ha of limestone, except the control. Forage samples were
collected 14 cm above soil surface. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was
the analytical method used to determine the mineral contents. Dry matter yield was affected positively with liming when compared
with the limestone control, but the effect of limestone use was more pronounced with the concomitant use of NK fertilizer.
The contents of Ca, Cs, Fe, La, Mg, Rb, Sc, Sm and Th in forage were negatively affected with the NK use, perhaps due to a
dilution effect, while a reverse were observed for K, Cl, perhaps due to input of KCl, besides Br, Mn and Se. It seems that
limestone is not a key input to restore degraded tropical pastureland, grown on acid soils, when nitrogen is lacking. INAA
allowed the monitoring of some not routine elements that may be under observation to avoid potential plant nutritional disorders
in production systems with high limestone and fertilizer use.