The influences of inactive, flowing atmospheres (noble gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, synthetic air) and vacuum (10−2 and 10−5 torr) on the thermal decompositions of inorganic and organic substances are discussed on the basis of literature and experimental data.
Ervin Bauer is one of the first theoretical biologists distancing his ideas both from vitalism and mechanicism. He formulated the principle of permanent non-equilibrium of living systems (Bauer’s principle) in terms of thermodynamics in 1920. Bauer’s scientific path can be divided into three periods. In the early 1920s he proposed his principle as an axiom that cannot be derived from contemporary natural sciences. In the late 1920s he reformulated it in a way that it could be subjected to experimental testing. Summarizing his views in the 1930s in his book, Theoretical Biology, he tried to show that his axiom is indeed the fundamental principle of biology. This later view was anachronistic in spite of many striking insights of Bauer. The energetic formulation of Bauer’s principle is, however, a realistic characterization of living organisms and it can be derived from the theory of open systems — in fact it contributed to the formulation of that theory. Bauer’s principle can be incorporated into non-linear thermodynamics of irreversible processes.
The temperature dependence of the thermal properties (specific heat,Cp, thermal diffusivity,a, and thermal conductivity,K) of endellite clay has been investigated over the temperature rangeR·T⩽T≲/280 °C using the plane temperature wave technique. The experimental results showed that in the initial stage of temperature rise botha andK diminish exponentially with increasing temperature up to ∼100 °C. Above 100 °C, the thermal parameters are found to reach stable values, namely,Cp=0.22±0.008 cal g−1 deg−1,a=(5.0±0.18)−10−4 cm2 sec− 1 andK=(2.2±0.16) · 10−4 cal cm−1 sec−1 deg−1. The explanation of the results was supported by using DTA and TG analysis.
The anticipated transformation of public utility sector at local level consists of the following main steps. Firstly, after the devolution, commercialisation takes place and the sector becomes independent of municipalities. Then, cost recovery begins to operate through tariffs instead of former budgetary transfers and simple cross-subsidies. Parallel to this, service regulations and quality standards are legislated. This is followed by the establishment of semi-autonomous regulatory agencies in the emerging market environment. However, in reality the development process is not so linear. Transition countries have to face not only the traditional failures of government functions. As competition is underdeveloped, market conditions should be established together with correction of market failures and design of new-born public regulatory functions, absolutely at the same time. In this situation market and government failures are mixed. These cumulative transformation failures might be avoided only with effective national and local policies.
The macrocyclic complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II) having chloride or thiocyanate ions in the axial position have been synthesized
and characterized. These complexes are synthesised by the template condensation of o-phenylenediamine or 2,3-butanedionedihydrazone with the appropriate aldehydes in NH4OH solution in the presence of the metal ions, Co(II) and Ni(II). The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods
(IR, UV-Vis and ESR) and magnetic measurements as well as thermal analysis (TG and DTA). The results obtained are commensurate
with the proposed formulae. Spectral studies indicate that these complexes have an octahedral structure. From conductivity
measurements the complexes are non-electrolytes. The kinetic of the thermal decomposition of the complexes was studied and
the thermodynamic parameters are reported.
The thermal decomposition behavior of hard coal fly ash (HCA2), obtained from the combustion of an Australian hard coal in
thermoelectric power plants, in different atmospheres (air, N2 and N2-H2 mixture), was studied using thermogravimetry (TG), infrared-evolved gas analysis (IR-EGA), differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and thermodilatometry (DIL) techniques. It was found that changing of the applied atmosphere affects the carbon content
of the ash which results in different thermal decomposition behaviors. In air, the carbon content was oxidized to carbon dioxide
before the decomposition of carbonate. In N2 or in N2-H2 atmospheres, the carbon content acts as a spacer causing a fewer points of contact between calcium carbonate particles, thus
increasing the interface area which results in a decrease of the carbonate decomposition temperature. Following the carbonate
decomposition, the iron oxide content of the ash undergoes a reductive decomposition reaction with the unburned carbon. This
oxidation-reduction reaction was found to be fast and go to completion in presence of the N2-H2 mixture than in the pure nitrogen atmosphere due to the reducing effect of the hydrogen.
The kinetics of the carbonate decomposition step, in air and N2-H2 mixture was performed under non-isothermal conditions using different integral methods of analysis. The dynamic TG curves
obeyed the Avrami-Erofeev equation (A2) in air, and phase boundary controlled reaction equation (R2) in N2-H2 mixture. The change in the reaction mechanism and the difference in the calculated values of activation parameters with the
change of the atmosphere were discussed in view of effect of the atmosphere on the carbon content of the ash.
Authors:M. Mostafa, M. Wakkad, A. Gaber, and N. Afify
The thermophysical properties (thermal diffusivitya, specific heatCp and thermal conductivity λ), of Bi1.5Sb0.5Te3 were measured in the temperature range 300–700 K. The results showed that the contribution of the charge carriers to the
thermal conduction is negligibly small in comparison with the contribution of phonons at high temperatures. On the other hand,
the heat conduction due to the simultaneous thermal diffusion of electrons and holes is important as well as the lattice thermal
conduction. The explanation of the results was supported by using electrical conductivity measurements and X-ray diffraction.
Authors:M. A. A. Elmasry, A. Gaber, and E. M. H. Khater
The thermal decomposition of the ferric and nickel acetate salts has been followed. It was found that the heating rate affects the decomposition steps. For a heating rate of 1 K min−1 the product is either Fe2O3 or NiO. For a higher heating rate the suboxides are obtained and reoxidized again on further heating. The decomposition of the mixed salt is an overlap of the DTA for the separate salts but the decomposition reactions are shifted to lower temperatures.
Authors:M. Gaber, S. S. Al-Shihry, and A. A. El-Bindary
Proton-ligand dissociation constant of 2-mercapto-5-(2-hydroxynaphthylideamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MHT) and the stepwise stability
constants of its metal complexes were determined potentiometrically in 40 mass/mass% ethanol-water mixture containing 0.1
M KCl. The stabilities of the complexes follow the order: Cu2+>Ni2+>Co2+>Mn2+. The dissociation constant (pKH) of MHT and the stability constants (logK) of its metal complexes were determined at different temperatures and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters were calculated
and discussed. The proton dissociation process is non-spontaneous, endothermic and entropically unfavoured. The formation
of the metal complexes was found to be spontaneous, endothermic and entropically favoured.