An uptake or a release of heat accompanies practically all molecular binding interactions. Therefore isothermal titration microcalorimetry is universally applicable for the characterisation of such binding processes. Calorimetric analyses do not require marker molecules or intrinsic spectroscopic reporter groups, which can modify the analysed interactions. Furthermore, measurements are carried out in solution and the adsorption of reactants to a solid phase is thus avoided. At variance with most other analytical approaches, titration calorimetry determines simultaneously enthalpy and entropy contributions of the binding interactions, as well as the binding constant and stoichiometry. In our analyses of the interactions between monoclonal antibodies and candidate antigens for vaccines vs. malaria and malignant melanoma, isothermal titration calorimetry has turned out to be a very valuable technique. The obtained quantitative data on biomolecular interactions can substantially support the rational design of epitope-focused vaccines.
The amorphous content of different Desferal samples was quantified by recording its recrystallization using isothermal microcalorimetry in a static as well as in a flowing humid atmosphere. Furthermore water vapor sorption gravimetry was performed for the same purpose. These analytical methods result in a quantitative signal directly dependent on the content of the amorphous phase (recrystallization, water sorption equilibrium). Their sensitivity allows the detection of amorphous content below 1%. Methods are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
DSC studies are carried out to characterize Na+,K+-ATPase isolated from pig kidney in its natural membrane environment as well as in its purified state upon detergent treatment. The transition temperatures of the investigated thermal protein unfolding process, observed between 43 and 64.5° C, depend on the local membrane environment as well as onpH. In addition, the transition temperature is significantly increased upon binding of different cations and ligands which are known to interact with the enzyme. Evidence for a lipid phase transition around 23 °C in the original biological membrane is reported.
This article summarizes the different steps needed for a proper design and monitoring of the solid-state in pharmaceutical
industry in order to fulfill the requirements of the guideline dealing with polymorphism of the International Conference of
Authors:Danielle Giron, S. Monnier, M. Mutz, P. Piechon, T. Buser, F. Stowasser, K. Schulze, and M. Bellus
Adequate very sensitive quantification methods are needed for the development and are also now required for the monitoring
of undesirable solid form(s) as routine tests. The pre-requisite for quantitation are selectivity, sensitivity and most important
the purity of standards and their proper storage, what is a challenge for metastable forms.
Several analytical techniques are available such as X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, thermal analysis and microcalorimetry.
The different steps of the validation of the analytical methods and problems to be solved are discussed. Examples illustrate
the different techniques and compare their possible advantages and limits. The relative standard deviation of measurements
should allow for checking the homogenization procedure of mixtures for calibration. The validation should be carried out following
ICH guidelines for validation of analytical methods. Comparison of different techniques in adequate concentration range add
confidence in the analytical results.
Authors:D. Giron, Ch. Goldbronn, M. Mutz, S. Pfeffer, Ph. Piechon, and Ph. Schwab
Manufacturing processes may involve the presence of water in the crystallization of the drug substance or in manufacturing
or in the composition of the drug product through excipients. Dehydration steps may occur in drying, milling, mixing and tabletting
processes. Furthermore, drug substances and drug products are submitted to different temperatures and relative humidities,
due to various climatic conditions giving rise to unexpected hydration or dehydration aging phenomena. Therefore the manufacture
and the characterization of hydrates is part of the study of the physical properties of drug substances.
Several hydrates and even polymorphic forms thereof can be encountered. Upon dehydration crystal hydrates may retain more
or less their original crystal structure, they can lose crystallinity and give anamorphous phase, they can transform to crystalline
less hydrated forms or to crystalline anhydrous forms.
The proper understanding of the complex polyphasic systemhydrates–polymorphs–amorphous state needs several analytical methods.
The use of techniques such as DSC-TG, TG-MS, sorption-desorption isotherms, sub-ambient experiments, X-ray diffraction combined
with temperature or moisture changes as well as crystal structure and crystal modelling in addition to solubilities and dissolution
experiments make interpretation and quantitation easier as demonstrated with some typical examples.