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Authors: I. Dalmadi and M. Tóth-Markus
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Galactosaemia is a rare, life-threatening inborn error. It is treated by life-long galactose restriction. People with galactose intolerance cannot consume milk and milk products. The aim of this work was to produce fermented milk products with low galactose content. Lactose hydrolysed milk and two types of mixture of lactose hydrolysed milk supplemented with galactose free nutriments (Pregomin and Nutrilon) were fermented in a 2:1 ratio. For fermentation traditional kefir culture (Lactococcus lactis sp. lactis + Lactococcus lactis sp. cremoris + Lactobacillus casei + Lactobacillus kefir + Candida kefir) was used. Number of viable cells, pH and galactose level were measured. Data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and t-test. Level of galactose reduction was measured by UV spectrometry for the determination of lactose and D-galactose in foodstuffs (Boehringer Mannheim enzyme test). Galactose content was below 200 mg/100 cm3 in the mixtures of lactose hydrolysed milk and galactose free nutriments after 48 h of fermentation. So, the kefir-like products based on mixed milk with nutriments are suitable for use in the diet of patients suffering from galactosaemia.

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In spite, that Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. is one of the most serious fungal disease in apple orchards and it has been studied from numerous points of view, few studies examined the anatomical differences between scab resistant (Vf cultivars) and susceptible apple cultivars. We have investigated the possible anatomical background of the resistance or susceptibility against apple scab in gradually decaying fallen apple leaves. Specific differences were observed in the process of leaf degradation and in the structure of leaf tissues of each cultivar. The epidermis and the cuticle have continually become thinner during leaf degradation in the leaves of two resistant cultivars, while great deformations were observed in the leaf tissues of the susceptible cultivars caused by the hyphae in the mesophyllum and subcuticular stromas. When comparing the non-infected parts of susceptible leaves with those of the resistant cultivars, we documented earlier disintegration of the parenchyma and declined cohesion between the tissue elements. Fungal hyphae appeared on each cultivar but subcuticular stromas developed and hyphae could break through the epidermis and get into mesophyllum only in susceptible leaves. We have discovered calcium oxalate crystals in the mesophyllum of the leaves of each cultivars, that seems to be a general feature of apple leaves, which was not documented previously.

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Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is more resistant to climatic and soil conditions but the yields are lower than in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), therefore its cultivation was given up for decades in Hungary. Millet is a suitable raw material for the production of pasta products without using eggs and it has other advantageous physiological effects, therefore its cultivation in Hungary is expected again. Millet is a gluten free cereal so it is not able to create viscoelastic protein network. During the biochemical studies the activity of enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase) influencing the colour of the flour, flour mixtures (T. aestivum L., Triticum durum L., P. miliaceum L.), and pasta products were examined. Oxidoreductases in wheat flour have always been of interest to cereal chemists. The effects of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) (POX) are much less thoroughly documented, although they are reported to have a relatively high level of activity in different flours. These days there are also insufficient research data on how the millet in dry pasta modifies the enzyme activity and the storage stability and shelf life of dry pasta products.

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Authors: P. Molnár, G. Várkonyi and M. Tóth

Auditing in the food industry: M. Dillon and CH. Griffith (Eds), Woodhead Publishing, Limited, Cambridge, 2001, ISBN 1 85573 450 8, 222 pages EU food law: K. Goodburn (Ed.), Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, 2001, ISBN 1 85573 557 1, 244 pages  Food chemical safety: D. H. Watson (Ed.), Vol. 1: Contaminants, CRC - Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England, 2001, ISBN 1 85573 462 1, 322 pages, Vol. 2: Additives ISBN: 1 85573 563 6, 308 pages

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Fermented milk products, for example yoghurts contain less lactose than the ordinary milk, however, this quantity of lactose can cause lactose intolerance. The aim of the work was to produce lactose free fermented milk products based on the lactose hydrolysed milk. Products were fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (N 71) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (N 1), Lactobacillus helveticus (N 43), Lactobacillus acidophilus (N 42).The growth characteristics, the acidity, the most important aroma productivity and the lactose content were measured. Products were evaluated with organoleptical test. Products were lactose free, so they are suitable for people suffering from lactose intolerance. There were differences among the acid content at the end of fermentation. In case of normal yoghurt culture acid content was 29.6 SH° and in case of probiotic cultures 30.4 SH° and 37.5 SH°, respectively. According to the results of sensory evaluation, the product made with traditional yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus)was better than products made with probiotic species because of the higher alcohol and lower acetic acid content.

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Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.) is one of the most important pathogens of pear and apple and subject to strict quarantine regulations worldwide. Fire blight disease causes serious damages in pear orchards in Hungary. The aim of our experiment was to test the susceptibility of pear cultivars to Hungarian E. amylovora isolates under laboratory conditions. For inoculation test isolates were chosen from different host plants, areas and years. Seven traditional pear cultivars were chosen for testing. Fruit infection was rated according to the diameter of spots produced by the pathogen around the inoculation puncture. Cultivars and isolates were assigned to five susceptibility groups (symptomless, low susceptibility, moderate susceptibility, susceptible and very susceptible). The Hungarian Erwinia amylovora isolates showed different results. We found different susceptibility of traditional pear cultivars. The cultivars Alexander Lucas and Stössel tábornok represented the less susceptible category. Eldorado, Serres Olivér, Diel vajkörte were moderately susceptible. Thus, the most susceptible cultivars were Téli esperes and Drouard elnök. In conclusion, these results can be used for the classification of Erwinia amylovora isolates and in future breeding programmes for resistance.

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Forage plants may become contaminated by mycotoxins already on the cropland as a result of mould infection, the degree of which can be diminished by the use of appropriate agrotechnical methods or resistant plant cultivars. During storage, the main goal is to prevent further mould infection and mycotoxin contamination. In that period, the moisture content of feedstuffs and the mould contamination of storage spaces, which can be minimised by the use of fungicidal products, are the most critical factors. Feed manufacturing processes do not substantially decrease the mycotoxin content of feedstuffs, and the efficiency of the recommended chemical and/or heat treatment procedures is also questionable as they are expensive and may reduce the nutrient content. To minimise the adverse effects of mycotoxins on animals, the use of products capable of binding and biologically transforming mycotoxins is also recommended; however, such products have varying efficacy.

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Our study involved assessing new Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars (‘Artemisz’, ‘Hesztia’, ‘Rosmerta’, and ‘Cordelia’) and two commercial cultivars (‘Watson Jonathan’ and ‘Prima’). The samples were evaluated by a trained assessor panel applying computer supported profile analysis with 20 descriptive sensory parameters (using ProfiSens sensory assessment software). Beside the profiles of each cultivar we also showed the significant differences between the cultivars (LSD95%, LSD99%). The nutritional values were analysed using the MANOVA statistical method, the effects of significant factors on measured values were evaluated by using Tukey (P=0.05) post-hoc test, and we determined the homogeneous and heterogeneous groups based on that. Our study showed that PCA bi-plots containing sensory and instrumental value loadings together with the scores of apple cultivars make the complex relationships of each cultivar available for comparison. The results clearly showed that the intensity of the sour taste is inversely proportional to the carbohydrate-acid ratio determined by measurements. The flesh firmness and pectin content values obtained by instrumental measurements were found to be strongly correlated sensory parameters on crispness, texture, and ripeness. PCA plots proved to be very useful in demonstrating the parallelisms between instrumental-instrumental (TPC/FRAP) and sensory-sensory (shade/colour) parameter pairs, too. Our aggregated results show that the new Hungarian resistant apple cultivars have almost as good as or even better nutritional values than ‘Prima’ and ‘Jonathan’ (the latter dominated the Hungarian apple production for several decades). The new multi-resistant cultivars renew the range of apple cultivars available on the market, and they introduce new flavours to consumers.

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