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  • Author or Editor: M. Tóth x
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In field screening tests conducted on selected pest scarabaeids in Hungary, Epicometis (Tropinota) hirta (subfamily Cetoniinae) was attracted to traps baited with either cinnamyl alcohol or trans-anethol. In some tests attraction was also detected to phenethyl alcohol or cinnamyl acetate. In other tests, adults of Cetonia aurata aurata and Oxythyrea funesta (subfamily Cetoniinae) also were attracted to trans-anethol, while the ternary mixture of phenethyl propionate, eugenol and geraniol attracted Potosia cuprea (subfamily Cetoniinae). Some attraction of Valgus hemipterus (subfamily Valginae) to cinnamyl alcohol also was observed. All of the above species are pests of more or less economic importance in Hungary. The attractant chemicals discovered in the present study will form a starting point for the development of effective attractants for the respective pest scarab species.

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The aim of dogrose breeding for fruit purposes is to select genotypes suitable for cultivation and to produce new genotypes by crossing. Physical and chemical analyses, prospective genotypes have been developed from R. inodora , R. corymbifera, R. rubiginosa and R. canina varieties.In the course of the investigations, the highest vitamin C content was found in the hips of R. inodora and R. rubiginosa . The glucose and fructose contents ranged from 9.57–13.36 g/100 g, averaged over several years. The amounts of these two carbohydrates were equal, or in some taxa (e.g. R. corymbifera, R. canina Sz3) the fructose content was higher.The glucose, fructose and vitamin C contents changed at different rates in each taxon during ripening. The results showed that the fructose content reached its peak a week earlier than the glucose content. The vitamin C content of morphological varieties of R. canina did not change substantially during ripening.

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Sticky “cloak” traps (CSALOMON® PAL) baited with the synthetic pheromone racemic 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane were most efficient among the trap designs tested for catching male olive fly Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae Gmelin (Diptera, Tephritidae) in field tests in Croatia. Colour cues did not influence male catches. Consequently transparent sticky “cloak” traps baited with pheromone appear to be the best choice for detection and monitoring of males of the olive fly in Croatia. Female flies did not respond to the pheromone, however, were weakly attracted to the visual cues of yellow and fluorescent yellow.

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In field trapping tests conducted in Hungary large numbers of Pyralis costalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a secondary pest, were attracted to traps baited with iso-amyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) and acetic acid. The same bait attracted lower numbers of P. farinalis L., a well-known stored product pest. In both spp. the capture of the two-component blend was significantly higher than the catch in traps with the single com­po­nents. In tests conducted in a country mill, the blend of the above two com­pounds proved to be attractive towards Anagasta kuehniella Zell. and Plodia interpunctella Hbn. (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), both important pests of stored products worldwide. The majority of captured insects were females. The optimal ratio for attracting A. kuehniella was 1:1 to 1:10 iso-amyl alcohol:acetic acid. The related iso-amyl acetate was inactive. The addition of iso-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-1-propanol) did not influence acti­vity of the iso-amyl alcohol / acetic acid blend. Polyethylene dispensers with 0.2 ml of the blend started to loose activity only after 3 weeks of field exposure. Application possibilities of the newly discovered attractant are discussed.

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Remarkable differences have been found in host-plant related chemical communication between Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze and Ph. vittula Redtenbacher (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In preliminary screenings sizeable catches of Ph. vittula were recorded in traps baited with either 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, or a quternary mixture of 2-butenyl-, phenethyl-, 3-butenyl-and butyl isothiocyanates. Later studies revealed that Ph. vittula responded better to the above isothiocyanate mixture, than to allyl isothiocyanate, while Ph. cruciferae catches were always greater in allyl isothiocyanate baited traps. Of the four isothiocyanates in the mixture, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate may predominantly be responsible for attractivity of the mixture towards Ph. vittula .As such differences in isothiocyanate preference may occur also in other flea beetle species, for practical applications more efficient, selective and sensitive baits and traps may be developed in the future based on improved knowledge of the chemical communication of flea beetles and through optimal combination of effective isothiocyanate compounds. Both Ph. cruciferae and Ph. vittula rank among the most important pest flea beetles in Europe.

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The Lucerne longicorn, Plagionotus (Echinocerus) floralis (Pallas) is a pest on alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and several other species in the area of its distribution. Seasonal flight activity of adults of this species was studied for first time by CSALOMON® ARb3z fluorescent yellow traps with a floral attractant in alfalfa fields at three sites located in Tracian Lowland (Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and Sofia Basin (Sofia) zoogeographical regions of Bulgaria. At all three sites P. (Echinocerus) floralis beetles were caught in relatively large numbers. Flight activity of the pest occurs over a period of about two months from the end of May (in Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and middle of June (in Sofia) until the end of July. In Sofia (2007), the abundance of the pest in an old (5-year-old) alfalfa was significantly higher than in a young (1-year-old) alfalfa. In the untreated fields, air temperature and air humidity had no effect on beetle captures. Our investigations showed that yellow fluorescent VARb3z traps baited with floral lure can be used successfully for detection and seasonal monitoring of P. (Echinocerus) floralis . Data obtained by monitoring of the seasonal activity of adults using baited traps can be useful for forecasting and controlling outbreaks of the pest.

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Two-year seasonal monitoring of the flight of Phthorimaea operculella by means of pheromone traps was organized at four sites in three districts in Bulgaria: Sofia, Kyustendil and Plovdiv. Comparison between sticky traps and dry funnel traps has shown that sticky traps were much more effective in capturing of males of this pest than the dry ones. The results of our investigations showed that the pest could appear in the field as early as the end of March and also intensive flight could be observed up to the end of November. Single catches were registered even in January. However, because of overlapping of the generations, their number and periods of moth emergence was not possible to be distinguished by the catches in pheromone traps. Analyses of climatic data (mean air temperature and mean rainfall) indicated that none of the climatic variables investigated strongly affected P. operculella trap catches.

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Three-years monitoring (1996 –1998)of the leafminer moth Leucoptera scitella Zell was organi- zed in the apple orchard of the Fruit-Growing Institute,Plovdiv,Bulgaria.Sex pheromone traps with Hunga- rian caps (Plant Protection Institute,Hungarian Academy of Sciences)were used for first time in this country. As a result,three full generation of the pests were established in all three years and a partial one in 1996 and 1998.The beginning and the end of the first generation were also well defined by the catches in the pheromone traps.However,an overlap of the second and the third on the one hand and the third and the fourth on the other,was observed in all three years.The time of the first catches from the first generation varied from April 9 to April 22.The second and third generation began in the second decade of June and second decade of July,respectively.Chemical treatments seem to have no significant effect on the catches in the pheromone traps.

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Hedya nubiferana (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a polyphagous pest damaging apple, pear, peach, plum and other related fruits. In tests conducted in Hungary, traps baited with a female-targeted lure [ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) + acetic acid; abbreviated later as PE+AA] caught comparable number of moths as pheromone baited traps. Traps with PE+AA lures caught (females and males together) on an average 30% of the catch in traps baited with the synthetic green budworm moth sex pheromone (catching all males). This suggested that the PE+AA lure had a trapping performance comparable with that of pheromone traps, which latter are in practical use by farmers today. The seasonal flight patterns recorded with the PE+AA baited traps were similar to those with the sex pheromone baited ones, with respect to detection of beginning of flight and quantitative trends of catches during the flight. Consequently, the PE+AA lure shows potential for future practical applications as a female-targeted lure for H. nubiferana.

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Five species of Plantago genus, namely P. lanceolata, P. major, P. media, P. altissima and P. maritima were screened for iridoid content (CE-MEKC), total caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside (CPG) content and antioxidant activity (CUPRAC assay). The five species could be distinguished by TLC pattern analysis in a single run in a system commonly used for quality management of P. lanceolata leaves, as shown by cluster analysis of major bands; with the exception, that P. altissima and P. lanceolata did not show enough pattern difference to be fully separated. P. maritima was shown to have the highest antioxidant capacity (0.42 μmol ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g DW), and the highest level of CPGs (4.29%). P. altissima was shown to be chemically indistinguishable from P. lanceolata with repsect to iridoid content (aucubin 0.55 ± 0.04%, 0.68 ± 0.23%, catalpol 0.66 ± 0.13% and 0.89 ± 0.22%, respectively), CPG content (2.40 ± 0.38% and 2.54 ± 0.56%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (0.2206 ± 0.0290 and 0.2428 ± 0.0191 μmol AAEAC/g DW). The presented data show the potency of medicinal use of Hungarian wild populations of the studied five species, especially in the case of P. maritima, and that P. altissima can be a potential replacement of P. lanceolata in herbal mixtures.

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