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A relatively homogeneous group of streptomycete isolates was obtained from netted scab lesions of potato tubers collected from a potato field in Hokkaido, Japan. Based on 55 phenotypic data of 72 Streptomyces strains selected from these isolates together with spectral data on their soluble pigments and with data of a PCR analysis, using species specific primers, these netted scab causing pathogenic organisms were identified as S. acidiscabies. S. acidiscabies had previously been isolated from deep (common) scab lesions in the USA and reported as thaxtomin A producer. In contrast, our S. acidiscabies strains were not able to induce deep scab symptoms on potato minitubers in pot test, did not produce the phytotoxin thaxtomin A and did not contain the pathogenicity related gene, nec-1.

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Sleep is homeostatically regulated suggesting a restorative function. Sleep deprivation is compensated by an increase in length and intensity of sleep. In this study, suppression of sleep was induced pharmacologically by drugs related to different arousal systems. All drugs caused non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep loss followed by different compensatory processes. Apomorphine caused a strong suppression of sleep followed by an intense recovery. In the case of fluoxetine and eserine, recovery of NREM sleep was completed by the end of the light phase due to the biphasic pattern demonstrated for these drugs first in the present experiments. Yohimbine caused a long-lasting suppression of NREM sleep, indicating that either the noradrenergic system has the utmost strength among the examined systems, or that restorative functions occurring normally during NREM sleep were not blocked. Arousal systems are involved in the regulation of various wakefulness-related functions, such as locomotion and food intake. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that activation of the different systems results in qualitatively different waking states which might affect subsequent sleep differently. These differences might give some insight into the homeostatic function of sleep in which the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems may play a more important role than previously suggested.

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Authors: Zsolt Komka, E. Bosnyák, E. Trájer, A. Protzner, Zs. Major, G. Pavlik, M. Tóth and A. Udvardy

Abstract

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of athletes usually occurs during warm-up or shortly after training. At this point sympathetic tone is still elevated but oxygen demand does not differ from resting levels. It is supposed not to have a primarily ischemic origin but most likely relates to repolarization abnormalities which can be associated with intracellular cAMP level caused by increased sympathetic tone. The mediators of sympathetic nervous system are the catecholamines (epinephrin, norepinephrin). Measuring QT-dispersion can show the repolarization's inhomogeneity. 27 elite soccer players, 28 triathletes and 29 non-trained control person took part in our study. It was recorded cardiac ultrasound, an ECG and taken blood before and after exercise. We found significantly higher QT-dispersion and catecholamines in soccer players compared to the triathletes and the controls. However the soccer players did not show larger athlete's heart than the triathletes. After exercise the increased repolarization inhomogeneity persisted in soccer players, but in triathletes it decreased. Increased sympathetic tone in athletes can enhance arrhythmia propensity. Our data may explain why the soccer players die of sudden cardiac death most commonly in Europe.

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The blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is the primary agent of cutaneous myiasis of sheep in northern Europe, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As the application of chemicals has several disadvantages, alternative control measures of traumatic myiasis of livestock must be developed. In this study, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as potential biocontrol agents against second instar larvae of Lucilia sericata was considered. The following nematode species were tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (IS 5, HHU 1, Hmo1, HNC 1, HAZ 36, Hbrecon, HHU 2, HAZ 29, HHP 88, HHU 3, HHU 4 and HGua), Steinernema intermedia, NC513 strain of S. glaserii, S. anomali, S. riobrave, Steinernema sp. and 5 strains of S. feltiae (22, Vija Norway, HU 1, scp, and IS 6). None of the examined EPN species or strains showed larvicidal efficacy at 37°C (no killing effect was observed in the case of the two heat-tolerant strains - H. bacteriophora and S. feltiae) against L. sericata larvae. At lower temperatures (20°C and 25°C) only strainsof S. feltiae were found to be active. The overall odds ratios calculated for L. sericata maggots to contract S. feltiae nematode infection show significant (p < 0.05) effect only in the case of strains HU 1, 22 and IS 6. In the case of strains HU 1 and 22 parasitic forms of S. feltiae could be detected in the dead larvae of L. sericata. Strain IS 6 (and also Vija Norway at 20°C) penetrated and killed fly larvae, but only adult forms of the nematode occurred in the cadavers.

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Risk factors for and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by ESBL-producing and by ESBL-non-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were compared in a four-year multicenter study in Hungary. One hundred ESBL-positive and one hundred ESBL-negative patients were included as cases and controls. Investigated risk factors were related to demographics, comorbid conditions, treatments, invasive procedures, surgery prior bacteremia, presence of additional nosocomial infections and preceding hospital admission within a year. Measured outcomes were crude mortality, mortality related to infection and delay in introducing appropriate therapy (DAT). Though some risk factors for infection (admission to intensive care units, having central venous and/or urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation) were shared by both groups, in other respects cases and controls were found to differ substantially. The 36 percent of patients with BSIs with ESBL-producing Klebsiella died versus 23 percent of controls (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–5.4; p = 0.02). The 18 percent of deaths in cases versus 9% in controls could be attributed to infection (OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.5–16.2; p = 0.006). Cases more often received previous antibiotic therapy than controls (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.7; p = 0.02) and delay in the introduction of appropriate antibiotic treatment was observed in 44% of cases versus 19% of controls (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.6–7.3; p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that BSIs caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae are related to previous antibiotic therapy and are associated with a high rate of mortality that is often linked to delay in the introduction of appropriate antibiotic therapy. This confirms that besides infection control measures the early identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of the infecting pathogen is salient in the control of BSIs caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae .

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Authors: Emese Szilágyi, M. Füzi, Ivelina Damjanova, Karolina Böröcz, Katalin Szőnyi, Á. Tóth and K. Nagy

Fourteen outbreaks in Hungary between 2005 and 2008 caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) were epidemiologically investigated and the isolated pathogens were characterized by molecular techniques. Ten of the fourteen outbreaks occurred in adult wards and four in neonatal units affecting a total number of 73 patients. The 54% [40] of the patients developed bloodstream infections and 21.9%–21.9% [16] pneumonia and surgical site infections, respectively. The overall rate of mortality proved high: 36.9% [27]. Outbreaks in adults affected more patients, had higher attack rates, were more prolonged in duration and had a 6.9-fold higher mortality rate than outbreaks observed in neonates. The outbreaks in neonates were caused by SHV-type ESBL-producing klebsiellae, while in the “adult outbreaks” exclusively CTX-M-type ESBL-KP strains were involved. While the outbreak strains isolated from neonatal units could be assigned to a variety of pulsotypes, the previously described K. pneumoniae epidemic clones, ST15 and ST147, could be identified among the pathogens causing outbreaks in adult units.

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Authors: SG Gabnai, L Kósa, E Tóth, N Schulteisz, J Gangl, M Othman and F Ihász

Several Hungarian and foreign researchers have already studied the cardiorespiratory parameters of elite handball players. There are only a few studies though, which would separately review the changes in the functions of different organ systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of an intervention (physical activity) on the cardiorespiratory system. In this study, 16 elite female handball players participated, whose body compositions were measured and took two vita maxima tests. During the analysis, each cardiorespiratory parameter was monitored for every 20 s. Between the two examinations, 6 weeks passed and an intervention took place. There was a significant decrease in relative body fat and a significant increase in relative muscle mass. Remarkable positive changes occurred in the values of ventilation, oxygen pulse, and in both absolute and relative aerobic capacities as well. The mean values of the team developed as expected, but the individual changes in body composition and cardiorespiratory parameters are just as important. First, we chose four players, who had the most outstanding changes. Second, we analyzed such parameters, which were expected to show adequate results in terms of the apparatus(es) functioning.

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Authors: T. Breuer, E. Sápi, I. L. Hartyánszky, Zs. Cserép, P. Vargha, A. Treszl, M. D. Kertai, J. Gál, M. Tóth, A. Szatmári and Andrea Székely

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the associations of blood glucose (BG) parameters and postoperative complications following paediatric cardiac surgery in the presence and absence of insulin treatment.

Methods: Prospectively collected perioperative data on 810 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease were retrospectively analysed. A combined outcome of death and multiple organ dysfunction (any two of the followings: infectious, cardiac, pulmonary, renal or neurological complications) was considered as the endpoint.

Results: In total, 110 patients developed the combined endpoint and 32 of these patients died during the perioperative period. Patients treated with insulin were younger, smaller and underwent more complex procedures. They had higher peak BG levels and higher daily BG fluctuation, however, BG parameters were not associated with adverse outcome. In patients without insulin treatment, peak BG values higher than 250 mg/dl (OR, 7.65; 95% CI, 1.06–55.17; p=0.043) and BG fluctuation exceeding the level of 150 mg/dl (10.72; 1.74–65.90 p=0.010) on the first postoperative day were independently associated with the combined endpoint.

Conclusions: Peak BG level and BG fluctuation on the first postoperative day were associated with the combined endpoint of complications and death but these results were only confined to patients without insulin treatment.

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Authors: Zs. Sári, T. Kovács, T. Csonka, M. Török, É. Sebő, J. Toth, D. Tóth, E. Mikó, B. Kiss, D. Szeőcs, K. Uray, Zs. Karányi, I. Kovács, G. Méhes, P. Árkosy and P. Bai

Abstract

Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.

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Authors: Enikő Sárváry, Zs. Gerlei, E. Dinya, E. Tóth, M. Varga, R. Chmel, M. Molnar, A. Remport, B. Nemes, L. Kobori, D. Görög, J. Fazakas, I. Gaal, J. Járay, F. Perner and R. Langer

Abstract

Patients on hemodialysis (HD) and renal transplant recipients (RT) have a high prevalence of HCV infection. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of HCV-RNA in the anti-HCV positive patients and to compare the biochemical parameters of PCR(+) and PCR(−) subgroups. Methods: The 525 sera were screened for anti-HCV. HCV-RNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and liver enzymes [SGOT, SGPT, GGT, α-glutathione S-transferase (GST)] were measured. Results: Active viraemia was found only in 187 of 289 (65%) seropositive HD patients in contrast to 53 of 53 (100%) of seropositive RT patients. Significantly increased (p<0.05) GST values (9.9 μg/l) were found in the PCR(+) subgroups compared to GST levels (2.7 μg/l) of the PCR(−) subgroups. Elevated GST concentration was found in 80% (208/251) of PCR(+) patients. The measured enzymes were not elevated in HCV infected patients. Six percent of HD and 11% of RT patients were screened before seroconversion. Diagnostic sensitivity (80%) and specificity (79%) of GST were calculated as good for early liver damage caused by HCV. In contrast, the sensitivity of the measurement of other liver enzymes were very weak (SGOT: 8%; SGPT: 10%; GGT: 42%). Conclusion: The significantly higher viraemia of the RT subgroup could be related to the immunosuppressive therapy. Increased GST level may be a useful indicator of tissue damage during HCV infection. If HCV infection is suspected, PCR and GST measurement should be performed, even if anti-HCV result is negative.

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