Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Nadia Zandi, and Mahdi Bakhtiari
61Cu is positron emitter and can be used as the PET and molecular imaging. In this study cyclotron production of 61Cu via 61Ni(p,n)61Cu, natNi(p,x)61Cu, natNi(d,x)61Cu, natNi(α,x)61Cu, natZn(p,x)61Cu and 59Co(α,2n)61Cu reactions was investigated. The ALICE/ASH (hybrid and GDH models) and TALYS-1.2 codes were used to calculate excitation
functions for proton, alpha and deuteron induced on natNi, proton on 61Ni and natZn and also alpha-particle on 59Co targets that lead to the production of 61Cu radioisotopes using intermediate energy accelerators. In addition, we compared the data obtained from in this study with
the reported measurement by experimental data. Moreover, optimal thickness of the targets and physical yield were obtained
by stopping and range of ions in matter code for each reaction. Eventually 61Ni(p,n)61Cu and 59Co(α,2n)61Cu reaction to produce 61Cu in no-carrier added state with high production yield was suggested. Finally the natNi(p,x)61Cu reaction was employed to test the target preparation using electroplating technique.
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Zahra Alipoor, and Abbas Majdabadi
The 82Sr/82Rb radionuclide generator is used very commonly in positron emission tomography. ALICE/ASH and TALYS 1.0 codes were used to
calculate excitation functions for proton, alpha and 3He induced on various targets that lead to produce 82Sr radioisotope using intermediate energy accelerators. Recommended thickness of the targets according to SRIM code was premeditated.
The application of those data, particularly in the calculation of integral yields, is discussed and theoretical integral yields
for any reaction were computed. To consider precision of TALYS 1.0 code calculations, 85Rb(p,4n)82Sr process was determined as most interesting one due to radionuclide purity. The TALYS 1.0 code predicts a maximum cross-section
of about 130 mb at 47 MeV for this reaction. Rubidium chloride deposition on copper substrate was carried out via sedimentation
method in order to produce 82Sr. 2.98 g RbCl, 1.043 g ethyl cellulose, 10 mL acetone were used to prepare a layer of enriched rubidium chloride of 11.69 cm2 area and 0.34 g/cm2 thickness.
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Zeanab Ansari, and Tayeb Kakavand
The radionuclide vanadium-48 (T1/2 = 16 d, β+= 49.5 %) could be employed to positron emission tomography. In this Study, 48V excitation function for the nat/49/48Ti(p,x)48V and the 48Ti(d,2n)48V nuclear reactions were calculated by ALICE/ASH code. Then recommended thickness of the targets according to the SRIM-2010
code was calculated; consequently, the theoretical integral yields were computed for all reactions by the computer software.
As a result, the 48Ti(p,n)48V reaction was determined as the best reaction. Ti target was prepared by sedimentation method to produce 48V throughout accelerator proton bombardment.
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Nadia Zandi, and Hossein Afarideh
In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in the use of radio nuclides for therapeutic purposes. Thulium–167 is an
important radionuclide (T1/2 = 9.25 d) due to it could be used for tumor and bone studies in nuclear medicine. 167Tm complexed with hydroxy ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (HEDTA) could be used with the aim of bone imaging. 167Tm emits a prominent γ ray of 208 keV energy and low energy electrons. This study describes calculations on the excitation
functions of 165Ho(α,2n)167Tm, 167Er(p,n)167Tm, natEr(d,xn)167Tm and natEr(p,xn)167Tm reactions by ALICE/ASH (hybrid and GDH models) and TALYS-1.0 codes. In addition, calculated data by codes were compared
to experimental data that earlier were published and TENDL-2010 database. Moreover, optimal thickness of the targets and physical
yield were obtained by SRIM (stopping and range of ions in matter) code for each reaction. According to the results, the 167Er(p,n)167Tm and 165Ho(α,2n)167Tm reactions are suggested as the best method to produce 167Tm owing to minimum impurities. The TALYS-1.0 code, predict the maximum cross-section of about 382 mb at 11 MeV and 849 mb
at 26 MeV for 167Er(p,n)167Tm and 165Ho(α,2n)167Tm reactions, respectively. Finally, deposition of natEr2O3 on Cu substrate was carried out via the sedimentation method. The 516 mg of erbium(III)oxide with 103.2 mg of ethyl cellulose
and 8 mL of acetone were used to prepare a natEr2O3 layer of 11.69 cm2. 167Tm was produced via the natEr(p,n)167Tm nuclear process at 20 μA current and 15 → 7 MeV protons beam (1 h). Yield of about 3.2 MBq 167Tm per μA h were experimentally obtained.
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Milad Enferadi, and Hojjat Nadi
172Lu due to its suitable (T1/2 = 6.7 days) and high detection sensitivity, is used as a radiotracer in different fields. 172Lu appears to be suitable as a long-lived rare-earth tracer for compound labelling and biodistribution studies. In the present
study, excitation functions via 172Yb(p,n)172Lu, natYb(p,xn)172Lu, 172Yb(d,2n)172Lu and natYb(d,xn)172Lu reactions were calculated by ALICE/91, ALICE/ASH and TALYS-1.2 codes. Deposition of natYb2O3 on Cu substrate was carried out via sedimentation method for the production of 172Lu. Cementation separation process and liquid–liquid extraction (LLX) of no-carrier-added (nca) radiolutetium from irradiated
ytterbium(III)oxide target hydrochloric solution was described using Na(Hg) amalgam, α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIB) and
di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP).
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Mohamadreza Bakht, and Leila Mokhtari
Radiolanthanide praseodymium-142 (T1/2 = 19.12 h, Eβ− = 2.162 MeV (96.3%), Eγ = 1575 keV (3.7%)) due to its high β-emission and low specific γ-emission could not only be a therapeutic radionuclide,
but also a suitable radionuclide in order for biodistribution studies. Conventionally, 142Pr produces via 141Pr(n,γ)142Pr reaction by irradiation in a low-fluence reactor and this study evaluates cyclotron reaction production of it. 142Pr excitation function via natLa(α,n)142Pr, 142Ce(p,n)142Pr, and natPr(d,p)142Pr reactions were calculated by TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-2.19beta codes, and with the data taken from the TENDL-2010 database.
In addition, we compared them with the reported measurement by experimental data. Requisite thickness of targets was obtained
by SRIM-2010 code for each reaction. The 142Pr production yield was evaluated with attention to excitation function and stopping power. Similar to reactor produced 142Pr; 141Pr impurity exists in cyclotron produced 142Pr while it could not be separated by chemical methods. Therefore, cyclotron and reactor produced 142Pr will be in carrier added form.
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Behrouz Shirazi, and Nami Shadanpour
Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added 103Pd was investigated from irradiated rhodium target with a-furyldioxime in chloroform from diluted hydrochloric acid. Extraction
yield was 85.3% for a single extraction from 0.37M HCl and 103Pd purity was better than 99%.
Authors:Mohamadreza Bakht, Mahdi Sadeghi, and Claudio Tenreiro
Application of nanoparticles in nuclear medicine has aimed to develop diagnosis and therapeutic techniques. Cerium oxide nanoparticles
(CNPs) are expected to be useful for protection of healthy tissue from radiation-induced harm and could serve therapeutic
function. Among a variety of cerium radioisotopes, 137mCe (T1/2 = 34.4 h, IT (99.22%), β+ (0.779%)) could be a novel candidate radionuclide in the field of diagnosis owing to its appropriate half-life, 99.91% natural
abundance of target and its intense gamma line at 254.29 keV. In this study, 137mCe excitation function via the natLa(p,3n) reaction was calculated by TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-3 codes. The excitation function calculations demonstrated that the
natLa(p,3n)137mCe reaction leads to the formation of the 136/138Ce isotopic contamination in the 22–35 MeV energy range. Interestingly, the isotopic impurities of 137mCe could serve radio protector function. Overall results indicate that the cyclotron produced 137mCeO2 nanoparticles by irradiation of a target encompassing lanthanum oxide nanoparticles could be a potent alternative for conventional
diagnostic radionuclides with simultaneous radioprotection capacity.
Authors:Hojjat Nadi, Mahdi Sadeghi, Milad Enferadi, and Parvin Sarabadani
In the present study, ytterbium-169 was produced via the 169Tm(p, n)169Yb nuclear process at the AMIRS (Cyclone-30, IBA, Belgium) cyclotron, irradiating Tm2O3 with proton particles of 15 MeV primary energy and 20 μA current for 20 min. Deposition of Tm2O3 on Cu substrate was carried out via by the sedimentation method. The 543 mg of thulium(III)oxide with 108 mg of ethyl cellulose
and 8 mL of acetone were used to prepare a Tm2O3 layer of 11.69 cm2. Yields of about 0.643 MBq 169Yb per μAh were experimentally obtained. 169Yb was separated in 80 ± 5% radiochemical yield using liquid–liquid extraction. Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added 169Yb from irradiated thulium(III)oxide target hydrochloric solution was investigated using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid
Authors:Mahdi Sadeghi, Nahid Soheibi, Tayeb Kakavand, and Mohammad Yarmohammadi
The radionuclide iron-55 (T1/2 = 2.73 a) decays by electron capture and consists of small percentage of weak gamma rays. 55Fe can be employed for industrial, medical and agriculture applications. First, calculation of the excitation functions of
iron-55 via the 55Mn(p,n)55Fe, 55Mn(d,2n)55Fe and 54Fe(α,n2p)55Fe reactions were performed and investigated by ALICE/ASH (hybrid model) and EMPIRE (3.1 Rivoli) codes. Then the required
thickness of the target was calculated by the SRIM code; moreover, the theoretical physical yields of 55Fe production reactions were obtained. Consequently, the best reaction, 55Mn(p,n)55Fe, was suggested to take full benefit of the excitation function and to avoid formation of radioactive and non-radioactive
impurities as far as possible. Furthermore, the optimum energy range were predicted to be 2–18 MeV and the theoretical physical
yield were obtained to be 0.35 MBq/μA h. Lastly, manganese dioxide (MnO2) powder was used to prepare the thick layer; it was deposited on an elliptical copper substrate by means of sedimentation
method. Target was irradiated at 20 μA current and 18 MeV proton beam. The radioactivity of 55Fe was determined via X-ray detector.