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Abstract

This study employs the method of direct citation to analyze and compare the interdisciplinary characteristics of the two disciplines of library science and information science during the period of 1978–2007. Based on the research generated by five library science journals and five information science journals, library science researchers tend to cite publications from library and information science (LIS), education, business/management, sociology, and psychology, while researchers of information science tend to cite more publications from LIS, general science, computer science, technology, and medicine. This means that the disciplines with larger contributions to library science are almost entirely different from those contributing to information science. In addition, researchers of library science frequently cite publications from LIS; the rate is as high as 65.61%, which is much higher than the rate for information science, 49.50%. However, a decreasing trend in the percentage of LIS in library science indicates that library science researchers tend to cite more publications from non-LIS disciplines. A rising trend in the proportion of references to education sources is reported for library science articles, while a rising trend in the proportion of references to computer science sources has been found for information science articles. In addition, this study applies an interdisciplinary indicator, Brillouin's Index, to measurement of the degree of interdisciplinarity. The results confirm that the trend toward interdisciplinarity in both information science and library science has risen over the years, although the degree of interdisciplinarity in information science is higher than that in library science.

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Abstract

This paper attempts to identify the relationship between co-authorship and the currency of the references and author self-citations in the key journals of environmental engineering. The results show that the self-citation rate of co-authored articles is higher than in single-authored articles. A statistically significant correlation is identified between the numbers of co-authors, the rate of author self-citing and the author self-cited; though it was a low correlation. The value of coefficient correlation between the number of co-authors and the author self-citing rate is slightly higher than that between the number of co-authors and the author self-cited rate, which indicates that the number of co-authors hold a stronger correlation with the self-citing rate than the self-cited rate. Meanwhile, self-citing references are found to be more up-to-date than references to others. The range of publication years of self-citing references is smaller than that of references to others, indicating that researchers tend to preferentially cite their own recent works. There is no significant difference in the latest references between self-citing references and the references to others. It might result from electronic journals that provide an easy access to the most current publications.

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Publications have been regarded as the most significant output indicating the research performance of universities. This paper uses ISI Essential Science Indicators (ESI) database to investigate the academic performance of research-oriented universities in Taiwan, adopting the bibliometric method from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The data cover the time span for 11 years from 1993 to 2003. The performance indicators applied in this study includes the number of papers, the number of citations, the average citations per paper, the number of highly cited papers, the number of hot papers, and the number of top papers. The research performance and the strength of those universities are revealed in this study, and it is found that National Taiwan University leads among these universities though each university still shows strengths in various specific fields.

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Abstract  

The aim of this article is to develop new patent indicators for evaluating technological innovation competitiveness between companies. A novel indicator representing an industrial’s patent performance, Essential Patent Index (EPI), was developed by incorporating information on who cited these patents and when these patents were cited, based on the assumption that both contribute to meaningful quality assessment. By combining EPI and Chi’s well known Technological Strength (TS) indicator, a second novel indicator Essential Technological Strength (ETS) was developed to represent the innovation competitiveness of an individual company. In this study, patent performance of three high-tech industries in Taiwan were analyzed using ETS as well as the traditional TS for comparison. Results from this analysis demonstrated that ETS provided better insights by clearly verifying the latent influence of citations, reinforcing the impact of essential patents, and aggrandizing the differences of innovation competitiveness between companies.

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Abstract  

This paper uses bibliographic coupling analysis to plot out a patent citation map. It explores the current research and development in the high-tech electronic companies in Taiwan, and the relationship between companies and industries. Fifty-eight high-tech electronic companies under this study, between 1998 and 2000, obtained 4162 patents from U.S., and cited 24,852 patents during these years. Through the data from bibliographic coupling analysis, the paper categorizes these companies into 6 major groups: semiconductor, peripheral, scanners, notebook / monitor, system, IC design / packaging. This research also uses multidimensional scaling to plot out a patent citation map, graphically displaying the association among the groups. The result shows a higher similarity among companies in semiconductor sector, whereas the distinction between industries grows more and more ambivalent, even overlapping in some cases.

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Abstract  

The objective of this research is to develop a new patent bibliometric performance measure by using modified citation rate analyses with dynamic backward citation windows. Cited half-life employed in bibliometrics was adopted in order to establish a model of annual patent backward citation windows. Based on the dynamic behavior of backward citation windows, the annual backward patent citation rates for each technology domain can be calculated to measure its bibliometric performance. It was found that the dynamic backward citation window represents more accurately the citation cycle time which is a key factor on technology assessment. Because different technology domain may have disparate attributes, a normalized backward citation rate was developed to measure the corresponding rank for each domain respect to the entire industry. Three technology domains were then chosen for demonstrative case studies which represent semiconductor, LCD, and drug industries.

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Authors: Jun-Ying Fu, Xu Zhang, Yun-Hua Zhao, Dar-Zen Chen and Mu-Hsuan Huang

Abstract

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is divided into three subfields, including Chinese medicine, Chinese herb and acupuncture, attracts increasing attentions due to its challenging and significant medical values. This study employs bibliometric analysis to examine the profile of publication activity in TCM field as well as its subfields. The data are retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database during 1980–2009, and 16,536 papers are identified for analysis. Generally speaking, proportions of papers in subfield of acupuncture decreased dramatically, while the proportions of papers of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb rose increasingly. This study finds that East Asia has the largest number of TCM papers, followed by North America and Europe. Furthermore, while China is ranked first in terms of the amount of TCM publications, USA gains the highest percentage of citations. As for regional specialty, mainly, scholars in East Asia publish intensively in Chinese medicine, while most of the scholars in North America and Europe probe into the study of acupuncture. In the latest two decades, China took the first place over Japan in subfields of both Chinese medicine and Chinese herb, while the US has always kept the largest share in acupuncture with a marked upward trend. Regarding the top-ranked TCM institution, Chinese Academy of Sciences located in China, is ranked first in the subfields of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb as well. As for Kyung Hee University, which is located in South Korea, is ranked first in the number of acupuncture papers and Harvard University is ranked first in number of acupuncture citations.

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Authors: Jun-Ying Fu, Xu Zhang, Yun-Hua Zhao, Mu-Hsuan Huang and Dar-Zen Chen

Abstract

This study applies bibliometric analysis to investigate the quantity and citation impact of scientific papers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data are collected from 19 CAM journals in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database during 1980–2009, and 17,002 papers are identified for analysis. The study analyzes the document types, geographical and institutional distribution of the authorship, including international scientific collaboration. This study suggests that the major type of document is original article. The CAM papers are mostly published by North America, East Asia, and European countries, of which publications authored in East Asia are cited most. Country-wise, major contributors of CAM papers are from USA, People's Republic of China, India, England and Germany. India has the highest CPP value, attracting high attentions in CAM community. This article also finds that international co-authorship in the CAM field has increased rapidly during this period. In addition, internationally collaborated publications generate higher citation impact than papers published by authors from single country. Finally, the research identifies productive institutions in CAM, and China Medical University located in Taiwan is the most productive organization.

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Summary This paper uses United States patent classification analysis to study the development of core technologies and key industries in Taiwan over the last 25 years, from 1978 to 2002. After counting the number of Taiwan-held United States granted utility patents, the authors divide the years into three phases: from 1978 to 1994, with less than 500 patents each year; from 1995 to 1999, with 500-2,500 patents each year; from 2000 to 2002, with annual patents greater than 2,500. The results show that for both Taiwan’s core technologies and key industries, there was a great diversity at the first phase, while a mainstream forms and matures at the second and the third phases. However, industrial development at the third phase was more concentrated and focused than previous ones. Overall, Taiwan has clearly moved from a manufacturing-based economy to an innovation-based one, with its focus on high-tech industries during the previous 25 years.

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Abstract

China's economy and technology have experienced spectacular growth since the Opening-up Policy adopted in 1978. In order to explore the innovation process and development of China, this study examines the inventive activities and the collaboration pattern of university, industry and government (UIG) in China. This study analyzes the Chinese patent data retrieved from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Three models of UIG relations which represent different triple helix configurations are introduced. According to the property of patent assignee, patent ownership can be divided into three types: individuals, enterprises, and universities and research institutes. Furthermore, enterprises can be classified into state-owned enterprise (SOE), private-owned enterprise (POE) and foreign enterprise (FE). The corresponding relationship of patent ownership with UIG is set up. Through analyzing the issued year, it is found that the inventive activities of China have experienced three developmental phases and have been promoted quickly in recent years. The achievement of innovation activities in China primarily falls on the enterprise, especially FEs and POEs. The innovation strengths of the three development phases have shifted from government to university and research institute and then industry. According to co-patent analysis, it is found that the collaboration between university and industry is the strongest and has been intensified in recent years, but other forms of collaboration among UIG have been weak. In addition, an innovation relation model of China was set up. The evolution process of innovation systems was explored, from etatistic model, followed by improved “laissez-faire” model, and then shifting toward triple helix model.

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