Authors:L. Yu, S. Wang, X. Jiang, N. Wang, and C. Zhang
Combustion experiments of three typical seaweeds (Gracilaria cacalia, Enteromorpha clathrata and Laminaria japonica) have been studied using a DTA-60H Thermal Analyzer and the combustion processes and characteristics are studied. Thermogravimetric
experiments are carried out on the samples with 0.18 mm particle size at the heating rate of 20°C min−1.
The results indicate that the ignition mode of seaweed is homogeneous and the combustion process is composed of dehydration,
the pyrolysis and combustion of volatile, transition stage, the combustion of char as well as the reaction at high temperature.
And the combustion characteristic parameters are obtained such as ignition temperature, maximum rate of combustion, burnout
temperature etc. The combustion models of these seaweeds are also analyzed. The combustion characteristics and model differences
between the seaweed and woody biomass are caused by the differences of volatile components. The combustibility indexes of
seaweeds calculated are better than that of woody biomass, and the index of Gracilaria cacalia is the best. At last, activation energies are determined using Arrhenius model that is solved by binary linear regression
Authors:W. N. Zhou, J. Ouyang, Z. H. Wang, X. Y. Wang, Y. R. Suo, Z. Zhang, and H. L. Wang
Elsholtzia densa Benth. var. densa (Lamiaceae) is a famous medicinal herb which has been widely used for treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, digestion disorder, rheumatic arthritis, nephritises, and nyctalopia in China. In this study, fraction of the ethyl alcohol extract of E. densa (aerial part) by different polarity solvents indicated that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited a potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with the IC50 value of 148.2 μg/mL. Under the target guidance of DPPH experiment, isoquercitrin, trachelogenin, ethyl caffeate, and arctigenin were separated with purities 95.98%, 92.98%, 96.07%, and 88.83%, respectively, by a dual-mode high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (4.5:5:3:4, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In order to evaluate the scientific basis, antioxidant activity of four isolated compounds was assessed by the radical scavenging effect on DPPH radical; isoquercitrin and ethyl caffeate showed stronger antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 9.4 μg/mL and 9.2 μg/mL, respectively, while trachelogenin and arctigenin showed weak antioxidant activities with IC50 values of >500 μg/mL and 72.8 μg/mL, respectively. Results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using DPPH antioxidant assay and dual-mode HSCCC could be widely applied for rapid screening and isolating of antioxidants from complex traditional Chinese medicine extract.
Authors:S. Liu, C. Chung, J. Chuang, C. Wang, and N. Aras
Sixteen minor and trace element contents of diet samples from three different social population groups in Taiwan were determined. Samples were prepared using duplicate portion technique by collecting the 15 subjects ate and drank during a 3-day period. Samples were homogenized, freeze-dried, and elemental concentration of minor and trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Elemental concentrations and daily dietary intake of the elements were compared with those in the other nations, and possible origins were discussed.
Authors:W. Jia, G. Ehrhardt, K. Zinn, N. Wang, and A. Ketring
Polypeptide microspheres containing polycysteine crosslinked with polylysine were prepared and radiolabeled with186Re and188Re. High labeling yields with the microspheres with both186Re and188Re (97%) were obtained, and above 99% retention of radiolabels in water in 24 hours was obtained. Rhenum-186 labeled polycysteine and polylysine microspheres (11 ratio, 20 m as mean diameter) were injected intra-articularly into the rear stifes (knee joints) of normal New Zealand white rabbits. About 87% of injected dose was retained in rabbit stifles and adjacent tissues in 96 hours after injection, while most of the activity lost from the joints was excreted in the urine. Due to its simplicity of preparation and radiolabeling, versatility, and biodegradability, this type of conjugate system may become the therapeutics of choice for radiation synovectomy.
Authors:H. Wang, S. Ambe, N. Takematsu, and F. Ambe
Using a radioactive multitracer and model acid rain (HCl or H2SO4 solution), batch experiments were performed to examine the pH effect on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of 16 elements
on soils as a model study of an acid rain effect. Kaolin, black soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) and
Kureha soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) were used as adsorbents. Characteristic dependence on the pH
value of the suspension was observed for the adsorption of the elements on kaolin and the soils. The results of this model
study indicate that acid rain decreases the retention of cations, while it increases or does not change the adsorption of
anions on soils. Organic matter in soils has a positive effect on the extent of adsorption of most elements investigated.
Authors:N. Wang, X. R. Zhang, D. S. Zhu, and J. W. Gao
Phase change materials (PCM) have been extensively scrutinized for their widely application in thermal energy storage (TES). Paraffin was considered to be one of the most prospective PCMs with perfect properties. However, lower thermal conductivity hinders the further application. In this letter, we experimentally investigate the thermal conductivity and energy storage of composites consisting of paraffin and micron-size graphite flakes (MSGFs). The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances enormously with increasing the mass fraction of the MSGFs. The formation of heat flow network is the key factor for high thermal conductivity in this case. Meanwhile, compared to that of the thermal conductivity, the latent heat capacity, the melting temperature, and the freezing temperature of the composites present negligible change with increasing the concentration of the MSGFs. The paraffin-based composites have great potential for energy storage application with optimal fraction of the MSGFs.
Authors:J. Cunningham, M. O’Neill, G. Patrick, N. Hickey, Z. Wang, A. Galwey, and J. Fierro
Results of Carr and Galwey  concerning copper malonate (CM) decomposition in vacuo at 510 K prompted present studies on
the utility of CM as a low-temperature precursor of oxide-supported copper catalysts. CM deposited upon metal oxides has been
converted to copper particles by vacuum thermal decomposition or reduction with aqueous hydrazine. Using the dehydrogenation
of isopropanol to acetone as a catalytic probe reaction, comparisons are made between levels of catalytic activity and selectivity
induced in TiO2, MgO and Ca(OH)2 supports by copper deposited thereon. Effects of particle size, prereduction temperature, and support reducibility are described
and evidence is given for a strong metal support interaction (SMSI)-like inhibition of activity of Cu/TiO2 by prior high temperature reduction.
Authors:T. Saito, J. Wang, T. Kitazawa, M. Takahashi, M. Takeda, M. Nakada, T. Nakamoto, N. Masaki, T. Yamashita, and M. Saeki
Four types of neptunyl(VI) hydroxides have been synthesized by chemical oxidation of Np(IV) instead of ozone oxidation of
Np(V) which caused the partial oxidation to the heptavalent state. NpO2(OH)2 (I) and NpO2(OH)2·H2O (orthorhombic type) (II) have been obtained by adding pyridine to the solution at 373K and 343K, respectively. NpO2(OH)2·H2O (hexagonal type) (III) and NpO2(OH)2·xH2O·yNH3 (x+y=1) (IV) have been prepared by using LiOH and NH4OH, respectively. The four materials have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, thermogravimetric analysis
and237Np Mössbauer spectra. The237Np Mössbauer spectrum of (I) measured first time as anhydrous neptunyl(VI) hydroxide (δ=−46.2 mm/s,e2qQ=193 mm/s and η=0.16 at 4.8K) has more distinct five-line Mössbauer pattern than those of (II), (III) and (IV). The Mössbauer
spectra for (II), (III) and (IV) are slightly different from each other. The structural information has been obtained from