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Authors: O. Farkas, Gyöngyi Gyémant, Gréta Hajdú, S. Gonda, P. Parizsa, T. Horgos, Ágnes Mosolygó and G. Vasas

Waterbloom samples of Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii were collected from a variety of ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Hungary. Samples were tested with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization — time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the microcystin forms. The concentration of the microcystins was measured with capillary electrophoresis and the toxicity was tested by sinapis test. DNA was extracted from the samples and tested using a range of primers linked to the biosynthesis of microcystin. All of the fourteen collected samples gave positive results for the presence of the mcy genes with PCR products with sizes between of 425 and 955 bp, respectively, indicating the presence of the genes implicated in the production of microcystins. The results showed that a wide range of microcystin (MC) forms were detected in the Microcystis containing samples, among which MC-LR, -RR, and -YR were the most common. The highest MC concentration was 15,701 mg g−1, which was detected in an angling pond. The samples containing Planktothrix agardhii were less toxic, and the most common form in this species was the Asp3-MC-LR.

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Authors: S. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, S. Tschabanenko, M. Haji Moniri, E. Farkas, X. Wang, S.-O. Oh and J.-S. Hur

Seventeen taxa new for science, i.e. Absconditella baegasanensis, Caloplaca hallasanensis, C. subconcilians, Fellhanera chejuensis, F. maritima, Lecania coreana, L. rinodinoides, Lichenostigma heterodermiae, Micarea coreana, Phoma heterodermiae, Protoparmeliopsis chejuensis, Roselliniopsis phaeophysciae, Topelia jasonhurii (all from South Korea); Caloplaca dzhankoiensis (from Ukraine); Protoparmeliopsis pseudogyrophoricum (from China); P. taranii (from Russia); and Seirophora blumii (from several Central Asian countries) are described, compared with closely related taxa, and illustrated.Five new combinations are proposed: Caloplaca subscopularis, Protoparmeliopsis crustaceum, P. gyrophoricum, P. mazatzalensis, and P. pinguis.A total of 64 lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are reported here as new for South Korea (i.e. Abrothallus microspermus, Amandinea melaxanthella, Arthonia epiphyscia, Arthothelium ruanum, Aspicilia contorta subsp. hoffmanniana, Biatora globulosa, Brigantiaea purpurata, Caloplaca gordejevii, C. micromera, C. oxneri, C. subscopularis, C. trassii, Candelariella reflexa, Dirina massiliensis, Endococcus cf. verrucosus, Hyperphyscia adglutinata, Hypogymnia austerodes, H. occidentalis, Ionaspis lacustris, Lecanora barkmaniana, Lecanora cf. marginata, L. symmicta, L. varia, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Lopadium coralloideum, Melaspilea bagliettoana, Menegazzia subsimilis, Micarea denigrata, M. peliocarpa, Myriospora heppii, Myriotrema masonhalei, Ochrolechia frigida, Opegrapha calcarea, O. phaeophysciae, Parmelia subdivaricata, Pertusaria aff. alpinoides, P. commutans, P. ophthalmiza, P. sphaerophora, P. subcomposita, Phlyctis aff. argena, Physconia hokkaidensis, Porina farinosa, Punctelia subrudecta, Pyrenula balia, P. castanea, P. laevigata, P. neojaponica, Rhizocarpon badioatrum, Rinodina fimbriata, R. oleae, R. polyspora, R. pyrina, R. sophodes, R. teichophila, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, Sphinctrina tubaeformis, Stigmidium fuscatae, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Thelotrema nipponicum, Toninia aromatica, Topeliopsis aff. azorica, and Trypethelium indutum); and two new for China (i.e. Caloplaca bassiae, Lecania rabenhorstii). Detailed locality data and annotations are given for further 22 noteworthy species, which are rare in South Korea (i.e. Agonimia opuntiella, Agonimiella pacifica, Amandinea punctata, Biatora longispora, Brigantiaea ferruginea, Caloplaca squamosa, Chrysothrix candelaris, Coenogonium luteum, Diploschistes actinostomus, Hyperphyscia crocata, Leucodecton desquamescens, Menegazzia nipponica, Pertusaria commutata, P. multipuncta, P. quartans, P. submultipuncta, P. aff. subobductans, P. velata, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Porina leptalea, Pyrenula pseudobufonia, and Trapelia coarctata); and for two species rare in China (i.e. Buellia badia, Letrouitia transgressa).

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, S.-O. Oh and J.-S. Hur

One new genus, i.e. Ivanpisutia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, similar to the genera Carbonea and Lecidella of the Lecanoraceae, and eleven new species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, i.e. Agonimia cavernicola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca chujaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Lichenochora makareviczae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, and Rusavskia coreana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from South Korea; Caloplaca neobaltistanica S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from China; and Caloplaca mandshuriaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Ivanpisutia oxneri S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Lecanora lojkahugoi S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Lecidella mandshurica S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Opegrapha verseghyklarae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur and Rusavskia ussurica S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from the Russian Far East, are described and illustrated, compared with closely related taxa.

Fourteen species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new for South Korea (i.e. Arthonia molendoi, Caloplaca arenaria, C. sideritis, Candelariella coralliza, Lecanactis cf. dilleniana, Micarea misella, Porina aff. ahlesiana, P. distans, Protoparmeliopsis pseudogyrophorica, Pyxine subcinerea, Stigmidium rivulorum, Stigmidium squamariae, Vouauxiomyces ramalinae, Zwackhiomyces lithoideae); 8 for Russia or the Russian Far East (i.e. Absconditella baegasanensis, Bactrospora cf. corticola, Biatoridium aff. monasteriense, Collemopsidium cf. halodytes, Lecanora cf. hafelliana, Opegrapha phaeophysciae, Phacopsis oxyspora, Polycoccum clauzadei, Vouauxiomyces ramalinae; and 2 species new to China (Caloplaca zoroasteriorum, Seirophora blumii).

Detailed locality data and annotations are given for further 27 noteworthy species, which are rare in South Korea (i.e. Arthonia epiphyscia, Buellia griseovirens, Caloplaca austrocoreana, C. chejuensis, C. micromera, C. multicolor, C. subconcilians, C. trassii, Catillaria atomaroides, Enterographa leucolyta, Fellhanera chejuensis, Fellhanera subtilis, Fuscidea austera, Fuscopannaria incisa, Ionaspis lacustris, Lecania rinodinoides, Lobaria japonica, Lobaria spathulata, Micarea coreana, Phaeophyscia endococcinodes, Physcia stellaris, Pyxine limbulata, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, S. umbrinum, Sculptolumina japonica, Trapelia coarctata, T. placodioides); and for 3 species rare in Russia (i.e. Dactylospora lobariella, Megalospora tuberculosa, Nipponoparmelia perplicata); and Dimelaena aff. oreina in China.

Arthonia epiphyscia is for the first time recorded from Anaptychia isidiata, and Arthonia molendoi is for the first time recorded from Caloplaca subscopularis.

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, S.-O. Oh and J.-S. Hur

Eleven new for science species of lichen-forming fungi, i.e.: Amandinea pseudomultispora, Buellia chujadoensis, Fuscidea coreana, F. extremorientalis, Hafellia extremorientalis, H. pseudosubnexa, Halecania subalpivaga, Lecanactis subdilleniana, Lecania chirisanensis, Maronella coreana, and Melanophloea coreana are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Amandinea polyspora, Catillaria nigroclavata, Ivanpisutia oxneri, Lecanora saligna, L. sambuci, and Lecidella mandshurica are proved to be new to Korea.

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, M. Haji Moniri, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, S.-O. Oh and J.-S. Hur

Data on about 27 new for South Korea species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, including one new for science genus Verseghya and 11 new for science species, i.e.: Agominia loekoesii, Lecanora pseudosambuci, Nectriopsis verseghyklarae, Polysporina golubkovae, Protoparmeliopsis zerovii, Psoroglaena chirisanensis, Pyrenopsis chejudoensis, Ropalospora chirisanensis, Thelopsis chirisanensis, Trapelia coreana, and Verseghya klarae, as well as 27 taxa newly recorded for the country (Biatora aff. subduplex, Buellia cf. uberior, Caloplaca kedrovopadensis, Catillaria chalybaea, Coenogonium isidiatum, Dibaeis yurii, Halecania australis, H. lobulata, Intralichen christiansenii, Ivanpisutia oxneri, Lecania cf. olivacella, Lecanora lojkahugoi, L. sulphurea, Lecidella mandshurica, Lichenoconium erodens, Micarea lithinella, M. aff. stipitata, Muellerella pygmaea var. pygmaea, Oxneria alfredii, Pertusaria aff. flavocorallina, Phaeosporobolus alpinum, Polycoccum innatum, Porina fluminea, Rinodina xanthophaea, Ropalospora chloantha, Stigmidium cladoniicola, and S. epiramalina) are provided.

Additional localities for the recently reported or described 39 species from South Korea, and for 1 species (Oxnerella safavidiorum) from Iran and China (for the first time for China) are provided.

The following taxa newly recorded for South Korea, i.e. Ivanpisutia oxneri, Lecanora lojkahugoi, Lecidella mandshurica, Rinodina xanthophaea, Ropalospora chloantha, as well as the newly described Buellia chujadoensis and Verseghya klarae found to be rather common in this country.

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, D. K. Upreti, G. K. Mishra, S. Nayaka, K. K. Ingle, O. O. Orlov, A. S. Kondratiuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, J.-J. Woo and J.-S. Hur

Eight species, new for science, i.e.: Lobothallia gangwondoana S. Y. Kondr., J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur and Phyllopsora dodongensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from South Korea, Eastern Asia, Ioplaca rinodinoides S. Y. Kondr., K. K. Ingle, D. K. Upreti et S. Nayaka, Letrouitia assamana S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra et D. K. Upreti, and Rusavskia indochinensis S. Y. Kondr., D. K. Upreti et S. Nayaka from India and China, South Asia, Caloplaca orloviana S. Y. Kondr. and Rusavskia drevlyanica S. Y. Kondr. et O. O. Orlov from Ukraine, Eastern Europe, as well as Xanthoria ibizaensis S. Y. Kondr. et A. S. Kondr. from Ibiza Island, Spain, Mediterranean Europe, are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa.

Fominiella tenerifensis S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et Feuerer is for the first time recorded from Mediterranean Europe, Huriella loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et Upreti is provided from Russia for the first time, and H. pohangensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur for the first time from China, Phoma candelariellae Z. Kocakaya et Halıcı is new to Ukraine, and Staurothele frustulenta Vain. is recorded from the Forest Zone of Ukraine for the first time.

Twelve new combinations, i.e.: Bryostigma apotheciorum (for Sphaeria apotheciorum A. Massal.), Bryostigma biatoricola (for Arthonia biatoricola Ihlen et Owe-Larss.), Bryostigma dokdoense (for Arthonia dokdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, B. G. Lee, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur), Bryostigma epiphyscium (for Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl.), Bryostigma lobariellae (for Arthonia lobariellae Etayo), Bryostigma lapidicola (for Lecidea lapidicola Taylor), Bryostigma molendoi (for Tichothecium molendoi Heufl. ex Arnold), Bryostigma neglectulum (for Arthonia neglectula Nyl.), Bryostigma parietinarium (for Arthonia parietinaria Hafellner et Fleischhacker), Bryostigma peltigerinum (for Arthonia vagans var. peltigerina Almq.), Bryostigma phaeophysciae (for Arthonia phaeophysciae Grube et Matzer), Bryostigma stereocaulinum (for Arthonia nephromiaria var. stereocaulina Ohlert), are proposed based on results of combined phylogenetic analysis based on mtSSU and RPB2 gene sequences.

Thirty-one new combinations for members of the genus Polyozosia (i.e.: Polyozosia actophila (for Lecanora actophila Wedd.), Polyozosia agardhiana (for Lecanora agardhiana Ach.), Polyozosia altunica (for Myriolecis altunica R. Mamut et A. Abbas), Polyozosia antiqua (for Lecanora antiqua J. R. Laundon), Polyozosia bandolensis (for Lecanora bandolensis B. de Lesd.), Polyozosia behringii (for Lecanora behringii Nyl.), Polyozosia caesioalutacea (for Lecanora caesioalutacea H. Magn.), Polyozosia carlottiana (for Lecanora carlottiana C. J. Lewis et Śliwa), Polyozosia congesta (for Lecanora congesta Clauzade et Vězda), Polyozosia eurycarpa (for Lecanora eurycarpa Poelt, Leuckert et Cl. Roux), Polyozosia expectans (Lecanora expectans Darb.), Polyozosia flowersiana (Lecanora flowersiana H. Magn.), Polyozosia fugiens (for Lecanora fugiens Nyl.), Polyozosia invadens (for Lecanora invadens H. Magn.), Polyozosia juniperina (for Lecanora juniperina Śliwa), Polyozosia latzelii (for Lecanora latzelii Zahlbr.), Polyozosia liguriensis (for Lecanora liguriensis B. de Lesd.), Polyozosia massei (for Myriolecis massei M. Bertrand et J.-Y. Monnat), Polyozosia mons-nivis (for Lecanora mons-nivis Darb.), Polyozosia oyensis (for Lecanora oyensis M.-P. Bertrand et Cl. Roux), Polyozosia percrenata (for Lecanora percrenata H. Magn.), Polyozosia persimilis (for Lecanora hagenii subsp. persimilis Th. Fr.), Polyozosia poeltiana (for Lecanora poeltiana Clauzade et Cl. Roux), Polyozosia prominens (for Lecanora prominens Clauzade et Vězda), Polyozosia prophetae-eliae (for Lecanora prophetae-eliae Sipman), Polyozosia salina (for Lecanora salina H. Magn.), Polyozosia schofieldii (for Lecanora schofieldii Brodo), Polyozosia sverdrupiana (for Lecanora sverdrupiana Øvstedal), Polyozosia torrida (for Lecanora torrida Vain.), Polyozosia wetmorei (for Lecanora wetmorei Śliwa), Polyozosia zosterae (for Lecanora subfusca? zosterae Ach.)) are proposed.

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, D. K. Upreti, G. K. Mishra, M. Haji Moniri, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, D. Liu, J.-J. Woo, R. G. U. Jayalal, S.-O. Oh and J.-S. Hur

Data on 54 new for China, India, Korea and Russia species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, including 22 new for science taxa of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, i.e.: Acarospora ulleungdoensis, Amandinea trassii, Aspicilia geumodoensis, Biatora ivanpisutii, Caloplaca patwolseleyae, Catillaria ulleungdoensis, Coenogonium agonimieoides, Gyalidea austrocoreana, G. ropalosporoides, Opegrapha briancoppinsii, O. ulleungdoensis, Phyllopsora loekoesii, Psoroglaena coreana, Psorotichia gyelnikii, Rinodina oxneriana, Scoliciosporum jasonhurii, Staurothele oxneri, Stigmidium coarctatae, Thelocarpon ulleungdoense, Thelopsis loekoesii, Toninia poeltiana, Unguiculariopsis helmutii, and and 7 new species to China (Caloplaca ussuriensis, Megaspora rimisorediata, Rinodina xanthophaea, Rusavskia dasanensis, Xanthoria splendens, Zeroviella coreana, Z. esfahanensis), and 1 new species to India (Zeroviella esfahanensis), and 24 new species to Korea (Agonimia blumii, Arthonia rinodinicola, Buelliella minimula, Dactylospora australis, Endococcus propinguus, Halecania santessonii, Laeviomyces aff. fallaciosus, Lecanora albescens, L. layana, Lecidella scabra, Micarea farinosa, Minutoexcipula aff. mariana, Opegrapha anomaea, O. aff. xerica, Phoma aff. lecanorina, Polycoccum rubellianae, Porina nucula, Pyrenidium actinellum, Rhexophiale rhexoblephara, Rimularia badioatra, Rinodina confragosa, R. milvina, R. occulta, Tremella phaeophysciae), as well as 1 new species to Russia (Verseghya klarae) are provided. Furthermore new for science species of lichenicolous fungus Polycoccum clauderouxii from China is described. Four new combinations, i.e.: Biatora pseudosambuci (Basionym: Lecanora pseudosambuci S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Buellia pseudosubnexa (Basionym: Hafellia pseudosubnexa S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Buellia extremoorientalis (Basionym: Hafellia extremorientalis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), and Sagedia nunatakkorum (Basionym: Lecanora nunatakkorum Poelt) are proposed. Data on conidiomata and conidia for lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha anomea Nyl are for the first time provided.

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, E. Farkas, D. K. Upreti, A. Thell, J.-J. Woo, S.-O. Oh and J.-S. Hur

Nineteen new to science species of lichen forming fungi, i.e.: Agonimia ascendens S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, A. sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, A. yongsangensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Biatora loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca ivanpisutii S. Y. Kond., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Candelariella makarevichiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Huriella pohangensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, H. salyangiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Hyperphyscia oxneri S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Nectriopsis gangwondoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Porina ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J. Halda et J.-S. Hur, Psoroglaena gangwondoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Pyrenopsis cavernicola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Rhizocarpon sunchonense S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca ulleungensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Sarcogyne ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Skyttea bumyoungsungii S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Thelopsis gangwondoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Topelia loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr., J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, all from South Korea, as well as Gallowayella awasthiana S. Y. Kondr. et D. K. Upreti from India and Franwilsia skottsbergii S. Y. Kondr., A. Thell, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur from Chile are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. A key to Agonimia species known from Eastern Asia is also included.

Lecanora helicopis is recorded for Korea for the first time, as well as a number of new to Jeju-do Island species (i.e.: Agonimia loekoesii, Biatora pseudosambuci, Buellia extremoorientalis, and Ivanpisutia oxneri) are recorded. Additional data on conidiomata and morphological characters of thallus and apothecia and illustrations as well as data on newly located isotype specimens recently described from Canary Islands, Spain Fominiella tenerifensis are provided.

Two new combinations, i.e.: Phaeophyscia saxatilis (for Physcia saxatilis Kashiw.), and Xanthoparmelia umezuana (for Karoowia umezuana Moon K. H. et Kashiw.) are also proposed.

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