Authors:Péter Kiss, Katalin Gméling, Ferenc Molnár and Zoltán Pécskay
In the Tokaj Mts (NE Hungary), which is a part of the Inner Carpathian Volcanic Arc, large amounts of intermediate-acidic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks accumulated in a N-S oriented graben-like structure during the Badenian-Sarmatian-Pannonian period, in relation with the closure of the Alpine Tethys (Penninic) ocean. Although previous research on volcanism and related hydrothermal processes produced a huge number of K/Ar age data no systematic petrochemical database has been available up to now from the Tokaj Mts. In this study we publish new results of geochemical analyses completed on systematically collected basaltic, andesitic, dacitic and rhyolitic rocks, and of the spatialtemporal evaluation of petrochemical signatures, with special reference to origin of magmatism and relationships of rhyolite to hydrothermal mineralization. In the southern Tokaj Mts rhyolite contains K-feldspar phenocrysts, while this phenomenon is absent in the rhyolite from the northern areas of the mountains. In accordance with this, significant potassium enrichment occurs in the south (whole rock K2O content varies between 4.35 and 5.61 wt%), whereas rhyolite from the northern Tokaj Mts is less enriched in potassium (K2O content is from 3.28 to 5.1 wt%). The most significant difference between the northern and southern dacite is the age of their formation. They were formed at the same time as rhyolite and andesite (between 13.4 and 11 Ma) in the northern Tokaj Mts, while they are much younger (10.57–10.1 Ma) in the southern Tokaj Mts, where they post-date hydrothermal activity. The boron content (10.1–52.12 µg/g) and the patterns of other trace elements of the volcanic rocks show typical subduction-related features; however, direct influx of subduction-related fluids during magma generation can be excluded. A more plausible explanation for the magma genesis is decompression melting of a previously metasomatized mantle, enriched with subduction-related components. Additionally, the unmineralized northern rhyolite samples contain much less Cl (usually below 0.2 wt%) than the high-K rhyolite in the southern part of the Tokaj Mts (usually more than 0.2 wt%), which correlates with the presence/absence of spatially and temporally related epithermal mineralization in these areas.
Authors:Péter Bajcsi, Tamás Bozsó, Róbert Bozsó, Gábor Molnár, Viktor Tábor, Imre Czinkota, Tivadar M. Tóth, Balázs Kovács, Félix Schubert, Gábor Bozsó and János Szanyi
Our research team has developed a new well completion and rework technology involving lasers. The system is made up of a high-power laser generator and a custom-designed directional laser drilling head. The laser head is attached to a coiled tubing unit to maximize production and to carry out special downhole tasks. In this phase of the development effort, laser technology is particularly well suited to cost-efficiently drill short laterals from existing wells in a single work phase, drilling through the casing and cement as well as the formation. The technology, which is an extended perforation solution, enables a more intensive interaction with the downhole environment and supports cutting edge subsurface engineering scenarios such as barite removal. Laser-induced heat treatment appears to be a suitable alternative to effectively remove the almost immovable deposits and scales from thermal water-well pipes.
Authors:Pál Sümegi, Sándor Gulyás, Bálint Csökmei, Dávid Molnár, Ulrich Hambach, Thomas Stevens, Slobodan B. Markovic and Peter C. Almond
The Madaras brickyard section found at the northernmost fringe of the Backa loess plateau is one of the thickest and best-developed last glacial loess sequences of Central Europe. In the present work high-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements (at 2 cm) were implemented on samples from the 10 m-section corresponding to a period between 29 and 11 KY cal b2K. One aim was to compare the findings with the ice core records of northern Greenland in order to establish a high-resolution paleoclimatic record for the last climatic cycle and with findings documented in other biotic and abiotic proxies so far. Our results revealed a strong variability of loess/paleosol formation during MIS 2. Millennial time-scale climatic events that characterize the North Atlantic during the last climatic cycle have been identified. From 29 ka up to the start of the LGM, the recorded MS values show a weak, negative correlation with the temperature proxy, and a weak positive correlation with the dust concentration of Greenland. A strong correlation was observed with the local paleotemperatures. Local climatic factors must have had a more prominent effect here on loess/paleosol development than the climate shifts over Greenland. During the LGM the same pattern is seen with a stronger correlation with the dust concentrations and a weaker correlation with the local temperature. Local climatic factors, plus dust accumulation, must have had a prominent influence on loess/paleosol development here. From the terminal part of the LGM a strong positive correlation of the MS values with the temperature proxy for Greenland accompanied by a strong negative correlation with the dust concentration values is observed. Correlation with local paleotemperatures is positive and moderate, strong. Here climate shifts over Greenland, as well as local endowments equally had an important role on the development of the MS signal.
Authors:Sándor Kovács, János Haas, Péter Ozsvárt, Ladislav A. Palinkaš, Gabriella Kiss, Ferenc Molnár, Sándor Józsa and Szilvia Kövér
The Mesozoic complex of Darnó Hill area in NE Hungary, according to well core documentation, is made up of two units. The upper unit, the Darnó Unit s.s., consists predominantly of blocks of ophiolitic rocks (pillow and massive basalt, gabbro) and subordinate abyssal sediments (red radiolarite and red pelagic mudstone of either Ladinian-Carnian or Bathonian-Callovian age, as well as bluish-grey, sometimes blackish siliceous shale of the latter age). The basalt is geochemically of MOR type, based on earlier evaluations. However, it comes in two types: reddish or greenish amygdaloidal pillow basalts with peperitic facies containing reddish micritic limestone inclusions, and green basalts without any sedimentary carbonate inclusion. The former type is probably Middle- Triassic, advanced rifting stage-related basalt, whereas the latter is probably of Jurassic age, corresponding to the Szarvaskõ-type basalt of the western Bükk Mountains. Pre-Miocene presence of an ultramafic sheet above the complex is indicated by serpentinite pebbles in the Lower Miocene Darnó Conglomerate.
The lower unit, corresponding to the Mónosbél Unit of the western Bükk Mountains, consists of lower slope and toe-of-slope type sediments: dark grey shale and bluish-grey siliceous shale of Jurassic age, both showing distal turbiditic character, with frequently interbedded carbonate turbidites and debris flow deposits containing cm- to dm-sized limestone and micaceous sandstone clasts. One to ten m-sized slide blocks of reddish, siliceous Triassic Bódvalenke-type limestone associated with the above-mentioned reddish, amygdaloidal basalt also occur. In one of the studied cores a block comprising evaporitic siliciclastics akin to those of the Middle Permian Szentlélek Formation and black, fossiliferous limestone similar to the Upper Permian Nagyvisnyó Limestone Formation of the Bükk Mountains, was also encountered.
A preliminary comparison with similar Triassic advanced rifting-type basalt and limestone/radiolarite of the western ophiolite zone of the Balkan Peninsula is presented (Fig. 1): the Zagorje region of NW Croatia, the Zlatibor-Zlatar Mountains of SW Serbia, and the North Pindos and Othrys Mountains, as well as Euboea Island, of Northern Greece. We propose the terms “Loggitsi Basalt” for such Triassic basalt containing peperitic facies, after the village of Loggitsion located in the central part of the Othrys Mts, and “Bódvalenke Limestone” for the transitional facies between Hallstatt Limestone and Triassic red radiolarite, after the village of Bódvalenke located in the Rudabánya Hills. The northwesternmost occurrence of both of these typical Neotethyan formations can be found in NE Hungary (Darnó Hill and Bódva Unit of Rudabánya Hills, respectively).