A software package to determine the non-isothermal kinetic parameters of heterogeneous reactions has been developed. The dynamic
handle of conversion degree step and ranges, heating rates and kinetic models makes the evaluation of the activation parameters
much faster. The standard procedure: ‘model-free’ kineitc, IKP and Perez-Maqueda et al. methods, is applied for the determination of the kinetic triplet corresponding to thermal induced transformations. The software
is designed mainly for thermogravimetric, temperature programmed reduction and dilatometry data processing, but may also import
already transformed numeric data.
Authors:A. Rotaru, Irina Nicolaescu, P. Rotaru, and C. Neaga
Over the ages, the deposits of dead vegetation buried by rock and mudflows, compacted and compressed out all of the moisture;
it slowly carbonized and became coal.
Humic acids are natural organic acids — brown coloured biological macromolecules, formed in coal by biochemical changes (decomposition,
pyrolysis) of lignocellulosic matter.
From lignite coal bed, the humates were extracted in alkaline medium and isolated from the residual fraction. Humic acids
were obtained by treating humantes’ solutions with HCl.
Thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA and DSC) was used in order to establish the decomposition and thermal effects of lignite, humates,
humic acids and residual matter extracted from Rovinari mines in Romania. A non-isothermal linear temperature regime was imposed
to reveal all decomposition steps.
Authors:A. Rotaru, Anca Moanţă, P. Rotaru, and E. Segal
Thermal analysis of 4-[(4-chlorobenzyl)oxy]-4′-chloro-azobenzene dye, exhibiting liquid crystalline properties, was performed
in dynamic air atmosphere. The compound behavior was investigated using TG, DTG, DTA and DSC techniques, under non-isothermal
linear regime. The evolved gases were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Kinetic parameters of the first decomposition step were
obtained by means of multi-heating rates methods, such as isoconversioanl methods, IKP method and Perez-Maqueda et al. criterion.
Authors:A. Rotaru, Anna Kropidłowska, Anca Moanţă, P. Rotaru, and E. Segal
Thermal analysis of three azomonoether dyes, exhibiting liquid-crystalline properties, was performed in dynamic air atmosphere.
Thermal stability studies and the evaluation of the kinetic parameters of each physical or chemical transformations are essential
for a full characterization, before attempting accurate thin films’ depositions of such materials used in non-linear optical
applications. New synthesized dyes with general formula:
where R is a nematogenic group: CN, CF3 or a highly polarizable group: NO2 were investigated using TG, DTG, DTA and DSC techniques, under non-isothermal regime. The evolved gases were analyzed by
FTIR spectroscopy. The activation energies of the first decomposition step were evaluated for each compound, the obtained
results revealing complex mechanisms.
Authors:Sonia Degeratu, P. Rotaru, Gh. Manolea, H. Manolea, and A. Rotaru
For two typical actuators of intelligent systems (Ni–Ti SMA cantilever and SMA helical spring), the evaluation of their thermal
characteristics is presented. In order to determine the transformation temperatures and other thermal parameters of the two
studied elements, the attention was concentrated on thermal analysis experiments. For each actuator configuration, comprehensive
graphical interfaces have been developed, to run in Visual Basic, with respect to the results of performed thermal analyses.
Authors:A. Rotaru, Anca Moanţă, Gina Popa, P. Rotaru, and E. Segal
Thermal analysis of 2-allyl-4-((4-(4-methylbenzyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl)phenol dye was performed in air flow. The compound thermal behavior was investigated using TG, DTG and DSC techniques, under non-isothermal linear regime. Kinetic
parameters of the two decomposition steps were obtained by means of multi-heating rates methods. Isoconversioanl methods (KAS
and FWO), Invariant Kinetic Parameters method and Perez-Maqueda et al. criterion (by means of CR and FW equations) were used.
Authors:A. Rotaru, Catalin Constantinescu, P. Rotaru, Anca Moanţâ, M. Dumitru, Margareta Socaciu, Maria Dinescu, and E. Segal
A new synthesized 4CN type azomonoether, exhibiting dying properties, crystalline nature and generating interest as a material
for non-linear optical applications was investigated. Modern devices incorporating liquid crystals tend to use thin films
of such materials because of their special characteristics. Thermal stability studies are indispensable before attempting
any deposition experiment.
We have investigated the thermal behaviour of 4-[(4-chlorobenzyl)oxy]-4′-cyano-azobenzene (TG, DTG, DTA and DSC) in inert
flow atmosphere, under non-isothermal conditions. The phase transitions were studied by repeated heating-cooling regimes,
with intercalated isothermal steps. The thin films were deposited on silicon and quartz substrates by matrix assisted pulsed
laser evaporation (MAPLE) using a Nd:YAG laser working at 266 nm. FTIR spectroscopy of the obtained thin films confirmed the
preservation of the compound’s structure.
Authors:A. Rotaru, Anca Moanta, I. Sălăgeanu, P. Budrugeac, and E. Segal
The non-isothermal kinetic parameters corresponding to the decomposition of 4-[(4-chlorobenzyl)oxy]-4′-nitro-azobenzene were evaluated. The kinetic analysis was performed by means of different multi-heating rates methods: isoconversional (‘model-free’) methods (Flynn–Wall–Ozawa) and invariant kinetic parameters method (IKP) associated with the criterion of the independence of activation parameters on the heating rate. The values of the obtained non-isothermal kinetic parameters are in satisfactory agreement.
Authors:Anca Moanţă, Cătălina Ionescu, P. Rotaru, Margareta Socaciu, and Ana Hărăbor
Using the Williamson method, a new dye 4-[(4-chlorobenzyl)oxy]-3,4′-dichloroazobenzene (CODA) with liquid crystalline properties was synthesized. The structure and the thermal behavior of CODA were investigated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and light polarized optical microscopy techniques. The thermophysical processes were monitored by heating–cooling cycles, but the formation of liquid crystal phases were exhibited only for small values of the cooling rates. For the first heating–cooling cycle, the melting and the solidification processes, thus the characteristic temperatures, are shifted to higher values when compared to the following cycles.
Authors:C. Constantinescu, E. Morîntale, Ana Emandi, Maria Dinescu, and P. Rotaru
A newly synthesized copper-complex exhibiting nonlinear optical properties, crystalline nature, and generating interest as a material for non-linear optical applications was investigated. As thermal stability studies are indispensable before attempting any laser-assisted processing experiments, the thermal behavior of 2,2′-dihydroxy azobenzene with Cu2+ cations that are found to organize themselves as non-central symmetric crystallites, was investigated. The thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation using a Nd:YAG laser working at 266 and 355 nm. Thermal analysis of the bulk compound indicates a higher thermal stability in argon flow when compared to the air atmosphere; as well, since, the adhesion of the compound onto the substrate enhances the bonding, the thermal stability of the Cu complex increases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy investigations were also performed.