Authors:S.R. Bhise, A. Kaur, M.R. Manikantan and B. Singh
Sunflower (PSH 569) was used to obtain textured defatted meal. Proximate analysis, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), fat absorption capacities (FAC), foaming capacity (FC), and bulk density (BD) were determined. The objective of the study was the optimization of extrusion conditions for production of textured defatted sunflower meal using response surface methodology (RSM) by evaluating functional properties. It was dried, grinded, and sieved to eliminate hull and fibre. Numerical optimization provided eight solutions with desirability value varying from 0.81 to 0.82. Range of predicted values of FAC (80.96–90.49), WHC (1.95–2.12), WSI (3.22–3.36), WAI (2.84–3.08), bulk density (0.31–0.36), and foaming capacity (14.39–16.30) were used for numerical optimization. Best extrusion conditions were 16.36% feed moisture, 300 r.p.m. screw speed, and 149.40 °C barrel temperature. Textured sunflower defatted meal was prepared using the above optimized conditions.
β-Galactosidase is an enzyme of commercial importance owing to its multiple benefits. Among all microbial sources, fungal species are of great interest for the production of this enzyme. Thus, the aim of this present work was to optimize the media as well as process parameters to achieve maximum β-Galactosidase production by solid state fermentation using the fungal isolate Rhizomucor pusillus. Various agro-industrial residues were tested for carbon as well as for nitrogen sources. The different process parameters were also studied to observe their effects on β-galactosidase production. Among all screened agro-industrial residues, wheat bran and corn steep liquor had the potential to be used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; whereas MgSO4 was found to be a suitable salt supplement. The optimal process parameters included particle size of 1000 microns, 50% moisture content, pH 5.5, 50 ºC temperature, and 7 days of fermentation.