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Abstract  

Thermal characterization is proposed as analytical methodology for the purity assay of lapachol, and for determination of the quality parameters of capsules containing this molecule. The TG data revealed that lapachol is more stable in the presence of adjuvants, showing the good quality of the formulation. The kinetic parameters obtained were lower for lapachol drug than for the formulated lapachol. The DSC data demonstrated good compatibility between lapachol drug and the adjuvant in the formulated lapachol, and did not reveal impurities such as secondary products of the isolation and recrystallization processes. The data were confirmed by the DSC-photovisual findings.

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Comparative studies on some analytical methods

Thermal decomposition of powder milk

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. Macêdo, O. de Moura, A. de Souza, and A. Macêdo

Abstract  

This work present comparative results on powder milk storage quality, obtained from analytical methods. Protein content was determined conventional (Kjeldahl) and colorimetric with biuret reagent at 540 nm and integral quality by thermogravimetric and biological methods. A method was developed for the protein separation of powder milk. Powder milk was submitted to degradation processes at 45, 60 and 80°C for 20 days. The results indicated that protein content values were inconsistent if determinations by Kjeldahl and colorimetric methods and biological tests were compared. There is evidence of thermal decomposition of powder milk as detected by biological and thermogravimetric methods.

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Abstract  

This work proposes thermal characterization as analytical methodology for the identification and purity assay of warifteine, an alkaloid in Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. Thermal and kinetic parameters were determined by means of TG and DSC photovisual studies. The TG results showed that the decomposition of warifteine in air and nitrogen atmospheres proceeds in three and four steps, respectively. The TG data allowed calculation of the kinetic parameters of warifteine. The activation energy values obtained by different methods displayed a good correlation. With the DSC photovisual system applied it is possible to detect the impurity level in warifteine after its purification.

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Abstract  

The compatibilities and stabilities of some binary mixtures and generic hydrochlorothiazide formulations were studied by using TG, DSC and a DSC-photovisual system. The kinetic parameters were determined via the Arrhenius equations. Tablet B presented higher compatibility and thermal stability than those of tablets A and C. The photovisual system demonstrated that the decomposition of tablet A occurs before the melting point, due to the Maillard reaction between the hydrochlorothiazide and lactose present in the formulation. The behaviour and rate constants of binary mixtures suggest that lactose can be substituted for microcrystalline cellulose, MC(101), in tablet A. The DSC and TG data revealed different characteristics of compatibility and stability in generic formulations from different manufacturers.

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Abstract  

The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast and reproducible method which is able to determine the concentration of ketoconazole in raw materials and tablets. The samples were analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetry at heating rates of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80°C min−1 in nitrogen and nitrogen-synthetic air mixture. The concentrations of ketoconazole in the raw material and in the tablets were obtained from the vapor pressure curves. The data showed that there is no significant difference between the vapor pressure profiles of ketoconazole itself and in its tablet in both studied environmental conditions confirming that the process is really vaporization. The concentration of ketoconazole was determined in the raw material and tablets of the drug.

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Abstract  

TG and DSC data were used to determine the thermal parameters of prednisone drug and tablets. Two formulations of prednisone 20 mg were analysed in the form of tablets. The TG curves of prednisone drug and tablets A and B displayed six, eight and seven thermal decomposition processes, respectively. Analysis of the DSC data pointed to chemical interactions between prednisone drug and the excipients of tablets A and B, suggested by alterations in the melting temperature of prednisone. The analysis revealed that prednisone drug is more stable than tablets A and B.

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Abstract  

The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast and reproducible method to determine the concentration of metronidazole in drug substance and tablets. The samples were analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetry, using 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80C min–1 heating rates in nitrogen and in nitrogen with synthetic air. Obtained data were used in the Antoine and Langmuir equations in order to have the pressure curves. Vapor pressure curves of drug and tablet of metronidazole were evaluated using the mathematical indexes of difference factor, f 1, and similarity factor, f 2, to compare their profiles. The data showed that there is no significant difference between the vapor pressure profiles of drug and tablet of metronidazole in both environmental conditions, which confirms that the process is really vaporization. The concentration of metronidazole was determined in the raw material and tablets of the drug.

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Abstract  

The present work proposes evaluation of the gelatinization processes of starch by means of DSC coupled with a photovisual system. The use of DSC, TG and DTA for a fast and efficient evaluation of the starch is suggested. The DSC curves of starch gels with water contents of 20, 30, 40 and 50% (mass/v) exhibited different phase transitions, corresponding to the gelatinization processes at the different water contents for the different lots. The DSC-photovisual system confirmed calorimetric behaviour differences between the starch lots studied.

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