A new sorbent, thorium oxalate incorporated in silica gel matrix was prepared. This material was characterized by X-ray, Thermo-gravimetric
Analysis, surface area and porosity analysis. The material was obtained in the form of granular particles in the mesh size
range of 80–150 American Standard of Testing Materials, yielding good liquid flow, when packed in ion exchange column. This
sorbent was investigated for the sorption of americium from various aqueous media such as nitric acid, oxalic acid and sulphuric
acid by distribution coefficient studies. Column experiments were carried out to study the practical application of this sorbent
for removal of americium from oxalic acid-nitric acid solutions. Elution studies were also carried out for the recovery of
Authors:I. Pius, R. Bhanushali, K. Pillai, S. Mukerjee, and V. Vaidya
Sorption of Pu(IV) on alumina microspheres prepared by the sol-gel procedure has been investigated for the recovery of plutonium
from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions. Distribution ratio for Pu(IV) between alumina microspheres and nitric acid-oxalic
acid have been determined. The influence of the mode of preparation and heat treatment of these microspheres, on the sorption
of Pu(IV) have been investigated. Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities have been determined using a 5 ml bed of alumina with solutions
of Pu(IV) in 1M HNO3+0.05M H2C2O4 and 0.5M HNO3+0.05M H2C2O4. The elution behavior of Pu(IV) loaded on these microspheres were studied using nitric acid solutions containing different
oxidising and reducing agents. Investigations were also carried out to fix the activity in the alumina matrix by heat treatment.
Authors:Kavitha Jayachandran, R. Bhanushali, I. Pius, and S. Mukerjee
Synthetic inorganic exchangers exhibit good thermal and radiation stability. Thorium oxalate precipitate shows potential for
co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from oxalate supernatant generated during plutonium oxalate precipitation. In
the present study, efforts were made to prepare thorium oxalate precipitate to be used for column operation. Distribution
ratios were determined to optimize conditions for sorption of plutonium and americium on thorium oxalate from nitric acid
+ oxalic acid solutions with composition similar to that of oxalate supernatant. Column experiments were also performed to
evaluate the sorption capacity of thorium oxalate for plutonium and americium from the same medium. The result showed that,
thorium oxalate prepared in 1.75M HNO3 at 70 °C is suitable for column operations. These studies showed that plutonium and americium could be simultaneously removed
from aqueous solutions with composition similar to plutonium oxalate waste using glass column packed with thorium oxalate
and these nuclides could be recovered by eluting with 3M HNO3.
Authors:R. Bhanushali, Sachin Pathak, I. Pius, and S. Mukerjee
Porous zirconia spherical particles have been prepared by internal gelation process. During preparation of these spherical
particles, a cationic surfactant, cetrimide was added in the feed broth to increase the surface area and porosity of the particles.
The sorption behavior of plutonium was investigated on this material from different complexing aqueous media from the recovery
point of view. Distribution ratio studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of varying concentrations of oxalic
acid, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to optimize the conditions of
sorption of plutonium on this ion exchange material.
Authors:Sachin Pathak, I. Pius, S. Mukerjee, Sangeeta Pal, and P. Tewari
Polyacrylhydroxamic acid resin synthesized by functionalization of polyacrylamide with hydroxylamine has been investigated
for the sorption of plutonium(IV) from carbonate medium, aiming at its application for the removal of plutonium from alkali
wash effluent generated during purification of TBP in PUREX process. Batch experiments have been carried out to determine
distribution coefficient of plutonium(IV) between this exchanger and various compositions of carbonate medium. Effect of the
concentration of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and pH of the solution on the distribution coefficient have been studied
to optimize the conditions for the uptake of Pu(IV) by this exchanger. Column experiments were carried out to determine the
practical capacity of the exchanger for plutonium. Elution studies were also carried out to recover the loaded plutonium from
the ion exchange column The exchanger displayed good exchange capacity for Pu(IV) from feed solution simulating the conditions
of carbonate wash effluent generated in PUREX process. The exchanger also exhibited fast elution of Pu, suggesting the feasibility
of using it for the recovery of Pu from carbonate based wash effluent.
Authors:R. Bhanushali, I. Pius, S. Mukerjee, and V. Vaidya
As a part of treatment of low level active waste, co-precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am), with thorium oxalate,
from oxalate supernatants generated during plutonium oxalate precipitation has been investigated. A simple method for the
simultaneous removal of both Pu and Am from oxalate supernatants could be developed. This simple process achieves incorporation
of these alpha active nuclides into small volumes of solid matrix from large volumes of aqueous waste.
Authors:I. Pius, R. Bhanushali, Y. Bamankar, S. Mukerjee, and V. Vaidya
Spherical beads of titania were prepared by a sol-gel route. During the preparation a cationic surfactant was added in the
feed broth to modify the surface characteristics of the microspheres. The absorption behavior of Pu(IV) from carbonate medium
on these microspheres was studied by batch experiments. Loading and elution behavior of Pu(IV) on a bed of titania microspheres
was studied and the practical capacity was determined.
Authors:Ashok Kumar, Ashoke Deb, S. Mukerjee, V. Vaidya, and D. Sood
Solvent extraction of plutonium(VI) from nitric acid (1 to 5M) into 20% and 30% TBP in dodecane saturated with uranium(VI)
(0% to 80%) has been studied. For a particular nitric acid concentration, the distribution coefficient (Kd) is found to decrease with the increase in saturation of organic phase with uranium(VI). At a fixed organic phase the saturationKd increased with increase in nitric acid concentration, however, the magnitude of this increase inKd decreased with the increase in saturation.
Authors:S. Chhillar, R. Acharya, R. Pai, S. Sodaye, S. Mukerjee, and P. Pujari
A particle induced gamma-ray emission method using proton beam in conjunction with in situ current normalization approach
was standardized for non-destructive determination of low Z element lithium and was applied for quantification of Li in lithium
doped neodymium dititanate (Nd2Ti2O7) ceramic sample. Thick pellets of heat treated samples, their precursors and Li standards were prepared separately by homogeneously
mixing with cellulose and fixed amount of F used for in situ current normalization. For validation of the method, four synthetic
samples were also analyzed. Samples and standards were irradiated with 4 MeV proton beam (~5 nA current) from folded tandem
ion accelerator (FOTIA) BARC, Mumbai. Characteristic γ-rays of 478 keV from 7Li to 197 keV from 19F were measured by high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The Li concentrations determined in the six samples were in the range
of 0.29–0.85 wt%. The Li contents in heat treated samples gave the idea about loss of Li compared to their precursors.
Authors:V. Ganatra, N. Kumar, S. Suryanarayana, Y. Bamankar, N. Reghu, V. Vaidya, and S. Mukerjee
This paper describes Jet Entrainment Technique (JET) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for the preparation
of small microspheres of UO2 in the size range of 100±20 μm diameter. The UO2 microspheres were prepared by Internal Gelation Process (IGP) using selected feed solution compositions. Equipment development
and the optimized process operations for obtaining more than 90% of high density UO2 microspheres in the desired size range are described.