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  • Author or Editor: Tae Lee x
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Two male harbour seals (Phoca vitulina; 33 and 35 years old, respectively), housed since 2002 at a zoo for exhibition purposes, developed severe, multifocal and diffuse skin lesions. Skin scrapings and microscopy for parasites as well as pure cultures for bacteria and dermatophytes were carried out to identify the aetiological agent. Skin scrapings showed that lesions appearing on the seals were caused by an infestation of Demodex mites, which is uncommon in marine mammals, and were not due to other causative agents (parasites, bacteria or dermatophytes). Treatment with amitraz (0.01%) once a week for three weeks and with ampicillin (10 mg/kg SID per os) for six days eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs of demodectic mange in the harbour seals. The purpose of this report is to describe the successful treatment of naturally acquired demodectic mange with amitraz in harbour seals.

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A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called ‘Jin-Pi’, is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and β-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.

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