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  • Author or Editor: Tamás Tóth x
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Authors: E. Kovács, P. Tóth, Cs. Juhász and J. TamáS


There are numerous biological agents including bacteria such as Brucella suis, B. abortus, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Chlamydia psittaci, viruses such as Variola major and V. minor, Flavivirus and Hantavirus, and toxins such as Botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and Trichothecene mycotoxin reported to have potential to cause illness via water consumption. In the recent years, biological threat prevention for urban water supply systems has been of special interest worldwide, thus, protection against biological agents requires adequate knowledge, available water treatment technologies and preparedness. In this review, the history of biological threat via public water supply, as well as selected early detection methods, prevention strategies and risk assessment models are detailed.

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In the paper a study is presented for the case if a 10−4/a annual probability design basis earthquake would hit area surrounding the Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Although the plant can be brought to safe shutdown condition and there is no need for off-site protective measures, the plant personnel will need a minimum of logistical support from and communication with the outside area. Therefore, the knowledge of the post-earthquake situation is required for planning of the logistical support of the plant accident management and for the understanding the working conditions for disaster management services. Parameters of the case-study earthquake are selected in accordance with the design basis of the plant. Distribution of population and housing data used in this study has been obtained by population census held in 2011. The study can also help to communicate the seismic safety of the plant showing the disastrous consequences of design basis earthquake while the plant remains safe.

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