Authors:F. David, A. Maslennikov, and V. Peretrukhin
Electrochemical reduction of heavy elements from aqueous solution to amalgams was studied by radiopolarography and radiocoulometry. Mechanism of actinide reduction on a mercury pool is discussed through simulation techniques. Special emphasis is placed on redox reactions and potentials, kinetics of the process and effect of acetate and citrate ions as complexing agents. Three groups of actinides have been found. The first group represents actinium and from uranium to berkelium. Reduction occurs in the experimental conditions via an irreversible 3–0 process. The second group consists of the elements from fermium to nobelium, which are reduced in non-complexing solutions, or with acetate ions, similarly as barium and radium, via a reversible 2–0 reaction. Finally, californium and einsteinium behave as intermediate elements. It is noticeable that such groups are also observed in the actinide series by studying the structure of the trivalent aqua ions. On the basis of the above mentioned investigations of actinides and lanthanides several examples of electrochemical application are presented. Californium has been separated from preceding transuranium and lanthanide elements (except europium) by electrochemical reduction to amalgams in acetic solution. Separation factors from 25–90 are achieved with appropriate cathodic potentials. Similarly, this element could be separated from several heavier actinides with citric media. The electrochemical preparation of mixed uranium-nickel and uranium-tin amalgams from aqueous acetate solutions is investigated. The dependence of redox potentials of mixed amalgams on different atomic ratio UNi and USn in amalgams is measured. The large shift of redox potentials of mixed amalgams to the positive direction is detected when the atomic ratio UNi or USn in amalgams reaches 15. The thermal distillation of mercury from mixed amalgams with different UNi and USn atomic ratios was carried out and the products were identified by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. The intermetallics UNi5 and USn3 were prepared from mixed amalgams with the atomic ratios UNi=15 and USn=13. The uranium and neptunium amalgams are prepared by electrolysis of aqueous acetate solutions and are processes into metals or nitrides U2N3, NpN by thermal distillation of mercury in vacuum or in nitrogen atmosphere.
Authors:M. Abuzwida, A. Maslennikov, and V. Peretrukhin
The simultaneous determination of U(VI), Pu(VI), Pu(V) in 0.5–4.0 M NaOH has been elaborated by means of classical and differential pulse voltamperometry. U(VI) is determined with a dropping mercury electrode (DME) at the half-wave potential of E1/2=–0.89 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode due to reduction to U(V). The limiting current or peak heights are proportional to uranium(VI) concentration in the range of 1.3.10–7–3·10–4 M U(VI). Deviation from proportionality is observed for higher concentrations due to polymerization of uranates. Pu(VI) and Pu(V) are determined with a platinum rotating electrode at E1/2=–0.02 V due to the reaction Pu(VI)+e–»Pu(V) and with DME at E1/2=–1.1 V due to the reduction to Pu(III). The limiting currents of both Pu(VI) and Pu(V) are proportional to their concentrations in the range of 4·10–6–1.2·10–3 M Pu. The determination of U(VI), Pu(VI), Pu(V) is not interfered by the presence of the following salts: 2M NaNO3, 2M NaNO2, 1.5M NaAlO2, 0.5M NaF and ions of Mo(VI), W(VI), V(V), Cu(II). The presence of CrO
ions disturbs the determination of U(VI) in 1–4M NaOH, however, contribution of the reaction Fe(III)+e–»Fe(II) to uranium reduction peak can be calculated from the height of the second peak Fe(II)+2 e–»Fe(0).
The sorption behavior of the pertechnetate anion in various solid-solution systems under aerobic conditions and pH 1.3–12.5 has been investigated. Batch techniques were employed. On most of natural minerals only surface adsorption occurs. Rs-values were no larger than 2.0 ml · g–1. Adsorption on various natural minerals and rocks such as sandstone, basalt, granite, pyrite, peat and others are comparaed with the analogous processes on artificial inorganic sorbents: titanium oxides (thermoxide-34, thermoxide-3), crystaline cadmium sulfide, zirconium phosphate, and complex inorganic sorbents: antimony oxide — silicon oxide — phosphorus pentoxide, antimony oxide — silicon oxide — aluminium oxide, lithium oxide — manganese oxide — aluminium oxide — water, lithium oxide — titanium oxide —chromium oxide — water. For comparison the sorption of Tc on some organic sorbents was included. The solubility of Tc2S7 in water was measured to be 0.257 g/l. It has been shown that preliminary irradiation of sorbents such as sandstone, peat and humic acid by -rays with doses not less than 107 rad results in the decrease of Tc(VII) sorption.
Authors:F. Zantuti, B. Al-Medehem, V. Silin, and V. Peretrukhin
The electrodeposition of uranium and trace quantities of239Pu,234Th,144Ce on a stainless steel disk has been investigated from 0.5–2.0M NaOH and the two-phase system: extract of actinides in TBP-aqueous solution of NaOH. The electrodeposition yield of the above elements reaches 98–100% in 40 min of electrolysis with current density 0.4–0.5 A/cm2. The presence of 0.5M Na2CO3, 2.0M NaNO3, 2.0M NaNO2, 0.2M NaF in alkaline solutions does not decrease the electrodeposition yield. The electrodeposited films meet all the requirements of -spectrometry. The uranium oxidation states (V) and (IV) have been determined in the electrodeposited films.
Authors:S. Al Waér, B. Al Medehem, and V. Peretrukhin
A two-step chromatographic technique was elaborated to isolate144Ce,144Pr from a solution of uranium fission products in 6M HNO3. The oxidation to Ce(III) by bromate and selective adsorption of144Ce(IV) on anion exchange column were used to concentrate and purify144Ce. Some impurities of uranium,95Zr,95Nb,106Ru remain in144Ce solution after the first step of its isolation. The final purification is achieved by passing the 6M HNO3 solution of144Ce(IV) through the HDEHP-coated teflon column. The decontamination factors of144Ce from main fission products are given. 7.2 mCi of (144Ce+144Pr) are recovered from each gram of irradiated uranium trioxide with the yield greater than 99%. An improvement of known generator was carried out to elute a purer144Pr from maternal144Ce(IV) adsorbed on the anion exchange column.