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Clod crushing is a principal problem with soils of high clay content. Therefore, there is a need for determining the conditions for clod breaking and clod crushing. The objective of the work was to develop a special purpose tool for single clod breaking both by rigid support of the clod and by a single clod supported by soil and to develop a machine for clod crushing. Furthermore, the purpose was to determine the relationship between the specific energy requirement for clod crushing in the function of soil plasticity and the soil moisture content by the means of the developed tool and machine. The main result of the experiments is summarized in a 3D diagram where the specific energy requirement for soil clod crushing is given in the function of the moisture content and the plasticity index for different clay soils.

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Lágyéksérvbe kizáródott óriás sigmabél diverticulum

Giant sigmoid colon diverticulum incarcerated in an inguinal hernia

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
Artúr Seli
,
Géza Telek
,
Edit Babarczi
,
Tibor Rudisch
,
Balázs Virág
,
Fanni Fülöp
,
József Sándor
, and
Ferenc Ender

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A colon sigmoideum diverticulosisa veleszületett vagy szerzett lehet. Az óriás vastagbél diverticulum (Giant Colonic Diverticulum, GCD), amelyet 4 cm-nél nagyobb diverticulumként definiálnak, ritka, de klinikailag fontos entitás. A McNutt (1988) osztályozást használják az óriás diverticulumok három alcsoportjának megkülönböztetésére. Az 1-es típusú diverticulumok pulziós pseudo-diverticulumok, amelyek fokozatosan növekszenek. A 2-es típusú diverticulumok gyulladásos eredetűek; egy korábbi suberosalis perforáció után alakulnak ki, ahol a tályogüreg kommunikál a bél lumenével, és a tályogfal fokozatosan rostonyás hegszövetté alakul, melyből hiányoznak a bél szövettani rétegei. A 3. típus a vastagbél valódi, veleszületett diverticulumai, amelyek a bélfal minden rétegét tartalmazzák.

Egy 59 éves férfibeteg esetét ismertetjük, akit sürgősséggel vettünk fel Sebészeti Osztályunkra kizáródott bal oldali lágyéksérv diagnózissal. Hasi CT-vizsgálat a sérvtömlőben herniálódott sigmabél-szakaszt ábrázolt, bélelzáródás jelei nélkül. Sürgős műtétet végeztünk; bal oldali inguinalis metszést követően a sérvtömlőben a sigmabél 3-as típusú óriás diverticulumát találtuk. Laparotómiát végeztünk, és egy szokatlanul nagy, 7-8 cm hosszú incarcerálódott diverticulumot szabadítottunk fel. Egyéb kóros nem volt a hasüregben, a sigmabél nem károsodott. A diverticulumot TA varrógéppel resecáltuk, a kapocssort seromuscularis varrattal buktattuk. A sérvkaput kívülről zártuk. A postoperatív szak eseménytelen volt, a beteget a 7. napon otthonába bocsátottuk.

Röviden áttekintjük a GCD diagnózisára és kezelésére vonatkozó ajánlásokat. Az elváltozás McNutt 3-as típusa miatt a kevésbé invazív, egyszerű diverticulectomiát választottuk a (Hartmann-szerinti) sigmaresectio helyett. Esetünk az amúgy is kis számban előforduló GCD rendkívül ritka szövődménye volt, amit egy szokatlan – de sikeres gyógyulást eredményező – beavatkozással oldottunk meg.

Summary. Introduction: The diverticulosis of the sigmoid colon may be congenital or acquired. The Giant Colonic Diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare, but clinically important entity. The McNutt (1988) classification is used differentiate the three subgroups of giant diverticula. Type 1 diverticula are pulsion pseudo-diverticula, which enlarge gradually. Type 2 are inflammatory diverticula due to a previous subserosal perforation, where the abscess cavity is communicating with the bowel lumen and its wall would be gradually composed of fibrous scar tissue, lacking the intestinal histological layers. Type 3 are the real, congenital diverticula of the colon, containing all layers of the intestinal wall.

We present a case of a 59-year-old male patient, who was admitted to our Dept. of Surgery in emergency with the diagnosis of strangulated left inguinal hernia. Abdominal CT demonstrated the herniation of the sigmoid colon into the hernia sac without the signs of bowel obstruction. The patient was operated on urgently; subsequent to a left inguinal incision, a Type 3 giant diverticulum of the sigmoid colon was found in the hernia sac. Laparotomy was performed, and the unusually large, 7-8 cm long strangulated diverticulum was liberated. There were no other pathological findings, the sigmoid colon was not damaged. The diverticulum was resected with a TA stapler, and the staple line was inverted with a layer of seromuscular sutures. The inguinal hernia orifices were reconstructed both intraabdominally and externally. The postoperative course was uneventful, the patient was discharged on the 7th day.

The recommendations concerning the diagnosis and treatment GCD are briefly reviewed. Due to the McNutt Type 3 characteristics, we opted for the less invasive, simple diverticulectomy instead of sigmoid resection (Hartmann’s procedure). Our case was an extremely rare complication of the already uncommon GCD, resolved by an unusual surgical intervention leading to a successful cure.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Virág Somogyi
,
Tamás L. Horváth
,
István Tóth
,
Tibor Bartha
,
László Vilmos Frenyó
,
Dávid Sándor Kiss
,
Gergely Jócsák
,
Annamária Kerti
,
Frederick Naftolin
, and
Attila Zsarnovszky

Thyroid hormones (THs) and oestrogens are crucial in the regulation of cerebellar development. TH receptors (TRs) mediate these hormone effects and are regulated by both hormone families. We reported earlier that THs and oestradiol (E2) determine TR levels in cerebellar cell culture. Here we demonstrate the effects of low concentrations (10–10 M) of the endocrine disruptor (ED) bisphenol A (BPA) on the hormonal (THs, E2) regulation of TRα,β in rat cerebellar cell culture. Primary cerebellar cell cultures, glia-containing and glia-destroyed, were treated with BPA or a combination of BPA and E2 and/or THs. Oestrogen receptor and TH receptor mRNA and protein levels were determined by real-time qPCR and Western blot techniques. The results show that BPA alone decreases, while BPA in combination with THs and/or E2 increases TR mRNA expression. In contrast, BPA alone increased receptor protein expressions, but did not further increase them in combination with THs and/or E2. The modulatory effects of BPA were mediated by the glia; however, the degree of changes also depended on the specific hormone ligand used. The results signify the importance of the regulatory mechanisms interposed between transcription and translation and raise the possibility that BPA could act to influence nuclear hormone receptor levels independently of ligand–receptor interaction.

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