The phase behaviour and phase stability of lipids are of importance in an understanding of the biological functions of cell membranes. Among a variety of physical techniques employed to study the phase behaviour and structural properties of polar lipids, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction have proved to be successful and are the most frequently used methods. Applications involving a combination of the two techniques, particularly when synchrotron radiation is used as the light source of X-ray diffraction, are reviewed in this article.
Authors:C. Chai, S. Ma, X. Mao, K. Liao, and W. Liu
Two different radiochemical procedures were developed: chelate ion resin exchange and amine solvent extraction. Two kinds of new Chinese chelate resins (NANKAI-3926 and BEI-5) and a new longchain primary amine N1923 were compared with the Srafion NMRR and the tertiary amine N235 in absorption performance of noble metals, respectively. Influences of various experimental conditions, e. g. sample digestion, acidity, equilibrium time, as well as elution of noble metals, on analytical sensitivity and chemical yield were discussed. Combining with neutron activation, the radiochemical separation procedures developed were used to determine the noble metal contents in the geological samples from Permian/Triassic boundary in South China.
Authors:J. Carpenter, D. Katayama, L. Liu, W. Chonkaew, and K. Menard
The glass transition of lyophilized materials is normally measured by conventional or temperature modulated differential scanning
calorimetry (TMDSC). However, because of the weakness of these transitions when protein concentrations are high, these techniques
are often unable to detect the glass transition (Tg). High ramp rate DSC, where heating rates of 100 K per min and higher are used, has been shown to be able to detect weak
transitions in a wide range of materials and has been applied to these materials in previous work. Dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA) is also known to be much more sensitive to the presence of relaxations in materials than other commonly used thermal
techniques. The development of a method to handle powders in the DMA makes it now possible to apply this technique to protein
and protein-excipient mixtures. HRR DSC, TMA and DMA were used to characterize the glass transition of lyophilized materials
and the results correlated. DMA is shown to be a viable alternative to HRR DSC and TMA for lyophilized materials.
Authors:J. Liu, H. Xu, W. Shen, X. Pan, and Y. Xiang
Mn2O3/-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method, and the maximum monolayer dispersion capacity or dispersion threshold value of Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3 was determined to be 13.08% from the decomposition mass loss of supported Mn(NO3)2 in the monolayer state. This was compared with the values estimated from a close-packed monolayer model and an interaction model. It was confirmed that the high activities and selectivities of the catalysts for benzoic acid hydrogenation to benzaldehyde are due to the monolayer dispersion of the Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3.
In our invention, FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) dry gas could be used to react with benzene without any special purification, and more than 90% ethylene was converted to ethylbenzene. The phenomenon of carbon deposition over catalyst surface was obvious and leads to a deactivation of catalyst, so it is important to study the behavior of carbon deposition of catalyst during alkylation of benzene. The influence of several factors such as temperature, reaction time, reactant concentration of the amount and the kinetics of carbon deposition were investigated, during which carbon depositing rate equations were obtained for different reactant.
Authors:Y. Wen, S. Lahiri, Z. Qin, X. Wu, and W. Liu
An attempt has been made to develop a radiochemical methodology for the decontamination of a trace amount of radioactive cesium from a bulk amount of natural NaCl by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX). Open chain crown ethers, of amide type, namely, N,N,N",N"-tetraphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (TDD), N,N,N",N"-tetraphenyl-3,6,9-trioxaundecanediamide and N,N"-dinaphthyl-N,N"-diphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (DDD) have been chosen for this purpose. The separation factor between Cs and Na is the highest when 10-4M TDD dissolved in nitrobenzene is used as extractant and 0.4M picric acid at pH 5.0 is used as aqueous phase. About 60% Cs is extracted in this condition in a single run.
This paper presents calorimeter measurement for the thermal decomposition of n-propyl nitrate (NPN), isopropyl nitrate (IPN) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). Similar experimental results of triethylene
glycol dinitrate (tri-EGDN) and tetraethylene glycol dinitrate (tetra-EGDN) are included for comparison. The potential energy
surfaces (PESs) along O-NO2 bond stretch are investigated using the DFT (B3P86, B3PW91 and B3LYP), ab initio Hartree-Fock and PM3 methods. The good coincidence
of experimental with theoretical results indicates that initial stage in the thermal decomposition of five nitrates is only
unimolecular homolytical dissociation of the O-NO2 bonds and the activation energies of thermolysis by DSC correspond to the energies of O-NO2 bond scission of nitrates.
Authors:H.-L. Liu, S.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Xiao, Q.-Y. Chen, and D.-W. Yang
Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures for tributyl
phosphate (TBP)+methanol/ethanol were measured with a TAM air Isothermal calorimeter
at 298.15 K and ambient. The results for xTBP+(1–x)CH3OH
are negative in the whole range of composition, while the values for xTBP+(1–x)C2H5OH
change from positive values at low x to
small negative values at high x. The experimental
results have been correlated with the Redlich–Kister polynomial. IR
spectra of the mixtures were measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen
bonding in the mixture.
Authors:J. Wang, M. Liu, X. Tong, W. Peng, H. Cao, and W. Su
Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) is a traditional Chinese medicine injection, widely used to enhance immune function of clinical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was established for quality control of SFI, which could simultaneously semiquantitatively reflect the constituents displayed in the chromatographic profile of SFI. The relative retention time and relative peak areas of the 21 common peaks related to the reference peak were calculated. The validity and advantage of this method were validated by systematically comparing chromatograms of 10 batches of SFI samples with the analytical methods of principal component analysis and angle cosine method recommended by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Moreover, a total of 21 constituents of SFI were identified or tentatively characterized in the fingerprint via ultrafast liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time-of-flight (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry technique on the basis of the retention time, ultraviolet spectra, fragmentation patterns, and reported literatures. All the results proved that the technique was useful in comprehensive quality evaluation of SFI and further study.
Authors:K. Shang, Y. Yang, J. Guo, W. Lu, F. Liu, and W. Wang
The extraction of cobalt by Winsor II microemulsion system was studied. In the bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt
(AOT)/n-pentanol/n-heptane/NaCl system, AOT was used as a anionic surfactant to form microemulsion in n-heptane, n-pentanol was injected in the microemulsion as a cosurfactant. Co(II) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase
due to ion pair formation such as Co2+(R–SO3−)Cl. The influence of different parameters such as the volume ratio of aqueous phase to microemulsion, surfactant concentration,
pH of the feed solutions, cosurfactant concentration as well as temperature on the extraction yield (E%) were investigated. The results showed that it was possible to extract 95% of cobalt by the AOT Winsor II microemulsion.