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  • Author or Editor: Xia Liu x
  • Biology and Life Sciences x
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Glutenin subunit alleles at the Glu-D3 locus and their effects on dough properties, pan bread, and dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) qualities were investigated using 106 winter and facultative wheat cultivars and advanced lines. Allele Glu-D3c (42.5%) was the most frequent glutenin subunit, followed by Glu-D3b (25.5%) and Glu-D3a (23.6%). Glu-D3d and Glu-D3f occurred in only three and six cultivars, respectively. The effect of Glu-D3 was significant forDWCNquality, accounting for up to 16% of the variation, but there were no significant differences between individual Glu-D3 alleles on dough properties and qualities of DWCNand pan bread. Interaction effects Glu-A1 × Glu-D3 and Glu-B1 × Glu-D3 were significant for DWCN quality and loaf volume. More work is needed to understand the effects of Glu-D3 variation on the determination of dough properties and end-use quality.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

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As one of the world’s earliest domesticated crops, barley is a model species for the study of evolution and domestication. Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby a population adapts, through selection; to new environments created by human cultivation. We describe the genome-scanning of molecular diversity to assess the evolution of barley in the Tibetan Plateau. We used 667 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to genotype 185 barley landraces and wild barley accessions from the Tibetan Plateau. Genetic diversity in wild barley was greater than in landraces at both genome and chromosome levels, except for chromosome 3H. Landraces and wild barley accessions were clearly differentiated genetically, but a limited degree of introgression was still evident. Significant differences in diversity between barley subspecies at the chromosome level were observed for genes known to be related to physiological and phenotypical traits, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, malting quality and agronomic traits. Selection on the genome of six-rowed naked barley has shown clear multiple targets related to both its specific end-use and the extreme environment in Tibet. Our data provide a platform to identify the genes and genetic mechanisms that underlie phenotypic changes, and provide lists of candidate domestication genes for modified breeding strategies.

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