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Abstract  

Five column experiments have been carried out to investigate the effect of flow rate on the breakthrough curves (BTCs) of phosphate, fulvic acid, and uranium(VI) onto a silica column. Both BTCs of phosphate and fulvic acid, and three BTCs of uranium(VI) in the presence and absence of phosphate or fulvic acid at high flow rate published in the previous paper [<cite>1</cite>] were compared with corresponding initial parts of BTCs at low flow rate in this paper. Each BTC in this paper was expressed as both C/Co–t and C/Co–V/Vo plots, where C and Co are the concentrations in the influent and the effluent respectively, t and V are the time and the effluent volume from the start of injection of pulse solution respectively, Vo is the pore volume of the SiO2 column. Based on the experimental results and the relationship among V, t, and flow rate F, it was found that there are advantages to using C/Co–V/Vo plot as BTC to study the effect of flow rate. Based on these comparisons of C/Co–V/Vo plots at different flow rates and the theoretical analysis from the Bohart–Adams sorption model, it was found that the right shift (increase in V/Vo of breakthrough), the left shift (decrease in V/Vo of breakthrough), and the non-shift (non-change in V/Vo of breakthrough) of initial parts of BTCs with increasing flow rate are certain to occur instead of only left shift and that three different trends of shifts can be mainly attributed to different rate-controlling mechanisms of sorption process.

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Abstract  

The residual fluorine in ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUC) cannot be removed, while a large part of residual fluorine in ammonium diuranate (ADU) can be removed, when AUC and ADU are decomposed and reduced under dry hydrogen atmosphere. UO2 was prepared by decomposing and reducing AUC and ADU in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The defluorination kinetics of UO2 at 500–700°C in atmosphere of 50% H2-50% H2O was investigated. The results show that the defluorination kinetics supports the Lindman's assertion that the residual fluorine forms a solid-solution in UO2.

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Abstract  

The title compound 3,3-dinitroazetidinium (DNAZ) 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (3,5-DNSA) was prepared and the crystal structure has been determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG techniques. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG curves by Kissinger method, Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The kinetic model function in differential form and the value of Ea and A of the decomposition reaction of the title compound are f(α)=4α3/4, 130.83 kJ mol−1 and 1013.80s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion of the title compound is 147.55 °C. The values of ΔS, ΔH and ΔG of this reaction are −1.35 J mol−1 K−1, 122.42 and 122.97 kJ mol−1, respectively. The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with a continuous Cp mode of mircocalorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initiation to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was obtained.

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Abstract  

Microcalorimetry was applied to study the effect of cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium) on the E. coli growth. The microbial activity was recorded as power-time curves through an ampoule method with a TAM Air Isothermal Microcalorimeter at 37°C. The parameters such as the growth rate constant (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum power output (P m) and the time corresponding to the maximum power output (t m) were calculated. The change tendencies of k, with the increasing of concentration (C) of the two cephalosporins, are similar which show that cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium have the same inhibitory mechanism. The experimental results reveal that cefonicid sodium has a stronger antibacterial activity towards E. coli than that of cefazolin sodium and this was coincide with the clinical manifestations.

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Thermal properties of polylactides

Effect of molecular mass and nature of lactide isomer

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Ahmed, J. Zhang, Z. Song, and S. Varshney

Abstract  

A thermal analysis of a series of polylactides (PLA) was carried out based on the number of average molecular mass (M n), and the nature of isomer (D, L and DL). It is confirmed that the glass transition temperature (T g) of PLA increased as a function of molecular mass irrespective of isomer type except sample with a high polydispersity index. The melting temperature (T m) and enthalpy of crystal fusion (ΔH f) of L-isomer increased as the M n was increased from 1100 to 27500. The degree of crystallinity (χc%) increased as a function of molecular mass. However no crystallization peak was detected in the lower molecular mass range (550–1400). The non-isothermal crystallization behavior of the PLA melt was significantly influenced by the cooling rate. Both D and L isomers exhibited insignificant difference in thermal properties and DL lactides exhibited amorphous behavior at identical molecular masses. Change in microstructure showed significant difference between two isomers. Analysis of the FTIR spectra of these PLA samples in the range of 1200–1230 cm−1 supported DSC observation on crystallinity.

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Abstract  

The thermal decompositions of dehydrated or anhydrous bivalent transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) and alkali rare metal (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) methanesulfonates were studied by TG/DTG, IR and XRD techniques in dynamic Air at 250–850 °C. The initial decomposition temperatures were calculated from TG curves for each compound, which show the onsets of mass loss of methanesulfonates were above 400 °C. For transition metal methanesulfonates, the pyrolysis products at 850 °C were metal oxides. For alkali rare metal methanesulfonates, the pyrolysis products at 850 °C of Sr and Ba methanesulfonates were sulphates, while those of Mg and Ca methanesulfonate were mixtures of sulphate and oxide.

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Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was one of the most disaster foliar diseases for wheat-growing areas of the world. Thinopyrum intermedium has provided novel resistance genes to multi-fungal disease, and new wheat-Th. intermedium derivatives for stripe rust resistance still need to develop for wheat breeding. Wheat line X484-3 was selected from a cross between wheat line MY11 and wheat-Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum partial amphiploid TE-1508, and was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and functional molecular markers. Chromosome counting revealed that the X484-3 was 2n = 44 and GISH analysis using Pseudoroegneria spicata genomic DNAas a probe demonstrated that X484-3 contained a pair of St-chromosomes from Th. intermedium donor parents. The functional molecular markers confirmed that introduced St-chromosomes belonging to linkage group 7, indicating that line X484-3 was a 7St addition line. The resistance observation displayed that the introduced Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum derived chromosomes 7St were responsible for the stripe rust resistances at adult plant. The identified wheat-Th. intermedium chromosome 7St addition line X484-3 can be used as a donor in wheat breeding for stripe rust resistance.

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Cytomixis has been described in many plant species, but not in Thinopyrum . The present study reports spontaneous cytomixis during microsporogenesis in Thinopyrum intermedium (2n = 42), Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70), and their F 1 hybrids with wheat. Cytomixis frequently occurred in early prophase I but very rarely in meiosis II. The type of cytomixis that occurred most often was where chromatins migrate from one nucleus into an adjacent cel1. Migration from one nucleus into two or more cells or from two or more nuclei into one cel1 was also observed. After a donor cell transferred chromatin to a recipient cell, the recipient cell would sometimes pass the chromatin on to another cell. Migration did not necessarily occur between cells in the same stage. Cytomixis in Th. ponticum and its hybrids with wheat was more complex than that in Th. intermedium . The possible causes, cytological consequences and genetic significance of cytomixis are discussed.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S.F. Dai, D.Y. Xu, Z.J. Wen, Z.P. Song, H.X. Chen, H.Y Li, J.R. Li, L.Z. Kang, and Z.H. Yan

A novel 4.0-kb Fy was sequenced and bacterially expressed. This gene, the largest y-type HMW-GS currently reported, is 4,032-bp long and encodes a mature protein with 1,321 amino acid (AA) residues. The 4.0-kb Fy shows novel modifications in all domains. In the N-terminal, it contains only 67 AA residues, as three short peptides are absent. In the repetitive domain, the undecapeptide RYYPSVTSPQQ is completely lost and the dodecapeptide GSYYPGQTSPQQ is partially absent. A novel motif unit, PGQQ, is present in addition to the two standard motif units PGQGQQ and GYYPTSPQQ. Besides, an extra cysteine residue also occurs in the middle of this domain. The large molecular mass of the 4.0-kb Fy is mainly due to the presence of an extra-long repetitive domain with 1,279 AA residues. The novel 4.0-kb Fy gene is of interest in HMW-GS gene evolution as well as to wheat quality improvement with regard to its longest repetitive domain length and extra cysteines residues.

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Abstract  

The effects of Amoxicillin Sodium and Cefuroxime Sodium on the growth of E. coli DH5α were investigated by microcalorimetry. The metabolic power-time curves of E. coli DH5α growth were determined by using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter at 37�C. By evaluation of the obtained parameters, such as growth rate constants (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum heat power (P m) and the time of the maximum heat power (t m), one found that the inhibitory activity of Amoxicillin Sodium vs. E. coli DH5α is enhanced with the increasing of the Amoxicillin Sodium concentration, and the Cefuroxime Sodium has a stimulatory effect on the E. coli DH5α growth when the concentration is about 1 μg mL−1. The IC50 for the Amoxicillin Sodium and the Cefuroxime Sodium are 1.6 and 2.0 μg mL−1, respectively, it implicates that the E. coli DH5α is more sensitive to Amoxicillin Sodium than Cefuroxime Sodium.

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