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The effects exerted by human recombinant interleukin-1β (hrIL-1β) and the prostaglandin inhibitor indomethacin on the course of Cryptosporidium baileyi infection in chickens were studied. Daily oocyst shedding was monitored by a quantitative method throughout the experiment. Humoral immune response to C. baileyi was assessed by ELISA at 3 weeks of age while the level of cellular immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) by a skin test at 23 days of age. Parenteral application of hrIL-1b decreased oocyst shedding to 62%, but the infection ran a similar course in treated and control birds. The PHA-P skin test demonstrated increased cellular immune reaction in chickens receiving IL-1b, but there was no significant difference in the humoral responses of the two groups as detected by ELISA. On the other hand, indomethacin mixed to the feed lessened oocyst shedding to 13.7% and also shortened its duration. Immunological parameters as reflected by PHA-P skin test and ELISA results indicated enhanced cellular but unaltered humoral immune response. These data suggest that the sys- temic application of interleukin-1 can induce partial protection against C. baileyi in chickens and that prolonged, abundant oocyst shedding is due to an indometha- cin-sensitive immunodepression via the prostaglandin pathway.

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Physiology International
Authors: P Szablics, K Orbán, S Szabó, M Dvorák, M Ungvári, S Béres, AH Molnár, Z Pintér, K Kupai, A Pósa and Cs Varga


The quality and function of movements undergo deterioration due to weight gain. Aerobic training normalizes body weight, improves the health status, and in addition, it is expected to improve the dynamics of movements. The aims of this study were to prove the beneficial effects of recreational physical activities on the movements.


Participants were divided into five different age categories: second childhood, adolescence, mature age I, mature age II, and aging. Squatting and vertical jumping of the participants were measured at the beginning and at the end of a 5-month training program. These movements simulated ordinary daily movements. Changes in the body were determined by InBody230. APAS 3D system was used for movement analysis.


The results showed significant improvements in body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, fat mass–body weight ratio, muscle mass–body weight ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist–hip ratio. During jumping, the lifting and sinking of the center of gravity’s (CG) position and its velocity and acceleration were improved. In case of squatting, the results showed significant improvements in the velocity and acceleration of dynamical characteristics of the CG. Other correlations were observed between changes in body composition and the dynamics of movements.


The research proved that recreational training optimized body composition and improved the characteristics of CG’s dynamics. The study suggests considerable connection between body composition and the characteristics of the movements’ dynamics. From this point of view, our training program was the most effective in the working age groups.

Open access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Eniko Sarvary, D. Lee, J. Varadi, M. Varga, I. Gaal, R. Chmel, G. Beko, Z. Kanyo, B. Nemes, Zs. Gerlei, J. Fazakas, L. Kobori, Zs. Herold, S. Németh, I. Galoczi, J. Jaray and R. Langer


The value of urinary cytology in the diagnosis of different pathological conditions in renal transplantation is particularly important. Manual microscopic urinalysis is a high-volume procedure that currently requires significant labour.

Objective: To automate the sediment evaluation and to make this more accurate using the Iris Diagnostics Automated Urine Microscopy Analyzer (iQ200). Our goal was to compare the manual and automated microscopic data to apply iQ200 in renal function monitoring.

Method: The iQ200 uses digital imaging and Auto Analyte Recognition software to classify urine constituents into 12 analyte categories and quantitatively report.

Results: We determined cut-off values of urine particles in every category, which correlated well with manual microscopic results. The iQ200 was more sensitive for pathological casts than manual microscopic analysis. iQ200 helped the operator to differentiate between isomorphic and dismorphic erythrocytes and between lymphocytes and granulocytes, too. Every pathological constituent could be recognized, which is very important for early recognition of renal impairment, graft rejection and urinary tract infection.

Conclusions: The iQ200 system automatically classifies 12 particles, significantly reducing the need for additional sample preparation, manual microscopic review achieving a high degree of standardization in urinalysis.

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