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Plant-plant interaction plays a key role in regulating the composition and structure of communities and ecosystems. Studies of plant-plant interactions in forest ecosystems have mainly concentrated on growth effects of neighboring plants on target trees. Physiological effects of neighboring plants on target trees, in particular understorey effects on physiology of overstorey trees, have received less attention. It is still unclear what is the physiological mechanisms underlying positive growth effects of understorey removal, although understorey removal has been applied to improve the wood production for hundreds of years worldwide. Only 17.5% of published works dealt with understorey-overstorey interactions and only a few of those researched the understorey effects on the physiology of overstorey trees. Case studies indicated that overstorey Abies faxoniana trees grown with different understorey shrubs showed significantly different levels of tissue nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates. Removal experiment showed that nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates concentrations in Cunninghamia lanceolata trees grown in the absence of understorey shrubs differed significantly (pure stand > mixture) with those in trees grown in the presence of understorey shrubs, in particular during the dry season. This review highlighted that the neighboring woody plants affect Cand N-physiology in overstorey trees. These effects may be mainly resulted from underground competition for soil water rather than for other resources as the effects were more pronounced during the dry season. The present review suggests that positive effects of neighboring removal (e.g., understorey removal, thinning) on overstorey trees can be expected more rapidly and strongly in stressful area (e.g., low rainfall, nutrient-poor site) than in areas with optimal growth conditions. Hence, ecophysiology-based management strategies for dealing with neighboring plants in forest ecosystems should take into account: 1) site conditions, 2) timing, duration and frequency of management practices, and 3) species-specific properties and other aspects such as biodiversity conservation and soil erosion.

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In this paper, we studied the inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on non-enzymatic glycosylation and the improvement of glycometabolism in insulin resistant (IR) human liver tumour (HepG2) cells. The anti-glycosylation activity of OA was determined by bovine serum albumin (BSA) fructose model. The results showed that OA moderately inhibited the formation of the intermediates of non-enzymatic glycosylation, fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds, and strongly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In addition, we analysed the effect of OA on glycometabolism induced by palmitic acid (PA) in HepG2 cells. The results showed that OA had almost no impact on HepG2 cell viability at concentrations lower than 30 µM. With the increase of OA concentration, glucose production in IR HepG2 cells decreased, while glycogen content increased. Meanwhile, OA has a significant inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in IR-HepG2 cells. Those results suggested that OA could be a promising natural blood glucose decreasing substance in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.F. Song, Z.Y. Ren, Y.B. Zhang, H.B. Zhao, X.B. Lv, J.L. Li, C.H. Guo, Q.J. Song, C.L. Zhang, W.L. Xin, and Z.M. Xiao

Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.

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Shuganjieyu (SGJY) capsule is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and ion trap mass spectrometry has been established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of SGJY and the multiple constituents of SGJY in rats. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 RRHD column (150 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), while 0.1% formic acid–water and 0.1% formic acid–acetonitrile was used as mobile phase. Mass spectral data were acquired in both positive and negative modes. On the basis of the characteristic retention time (R t) and mass spectral data with those of reference standards and relevant references, 73 constituents from the SGJY and 15 ingredients including 10 original constituents and 5 metabolites from the rat plasma after oral administration of SGJY were identified or tentatively characterized. This study provided helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on SGJY.

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