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In this paper the authors publish the results of the dendrochronological and radiocarbon investigation of the beam foundation excavated in the backyard of 20 Jókai Street under the medieval western town wall of Székesfehérvár. Based on the 11th century dating results – hypothesizing the primary usage of the beams – they delineate the historical significance of the early stone town wall in medieval Europe and the Hungarian Kingdom.

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the Retezat Mountains, this study discusses radiocarbon chronology and sediment accumulation rate changes in two sediment profiles in relation to lithostratigraphy, organic content, biogenic silica and major pollenstratigraphic changes. A total of 25 radiocarbon dates were obtained from sediments of two lakes, Lake Brazi (TDB-1; 1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (Gales-3; 1990 m a.s.l.). Age-depth modeling was performed on TDB-1 using calibrated age ranges from BCal and various curve-fitting methods in psimpoll. Our results suggest that sediment accumulation began between 15,124–15,755 cal yr BP in both lakes and was continuous throughout the Late Glacial and Holocene. We demonstrated that local ecosystem productivity showed delayed response to Late Glacial and Early Holocene climatic changes in the subalpine and alpine zones most likely attributable to the cooling effect of remnant glaciers and meltwater input. However, regional vegetation response was without time lag and indicated forestation and warming at 14,450 and 11,550 cal yr BP, and cooling at ca. 12,800 cal yr BP. In the Holocene one major shift was detected, starting around 6300 cal yr BP and culminating around 5200 cal yr BP. The various proxies suggested summer cooling, shorter duration of the winter ice-cover season and/or increasing size of the water body, probably in response to increasing available moisture.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Zoltán Kern, Miklós Kázmér, Tamás Müller, András Specziár, Alexandra Németh, and Tamás Váczi

Microscopic inclusions have been observed in 7 out of 106 European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) sagittae using polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscope meanwhile the annual increments were studied to characterize the age structure of the population living in Lake Balaton. The presence of vaterite, a rare calcium carbonate polymorph was observed in these inclusions using Raman spectroscopy. Vateritic sagittae in wild fish are usually considered as symptom of physiological stress. The observed fusiform inclusions represent a new morphological type of vaterite inclusions in eel otolith. Two alternatives are hypothesized to explain their formation: 1) metabolic disorder, such as erroneous protein synthesis; 2) introduction of an alien protein into the eel’s inner ear. The origin and physiological significance of this new morphological type of vateritic inclusions is still an open question. Same as whether it can be found in other species or specific only to eel otoliths.

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Central European Geology
Authors: Attila Demény, Alexandra Németh, Zoltán Kern, György Czuppon, Mihály Molnár, Szabolcs Leél-Őssy, Mihály Óvári, and József Stieber

Determination of the long-term behavior of cave systems and their response to changing environmental conditions is essential for further paleoclimate analyses of cave-hosted carbonate deposits. For this purpose, four actively forming stalagmites were collected in the Baradla Cave where a three-year monitoring campaign was also conducted. Based on textural characteristics and radiocarbon analyses, the stalagmites are composed of annual laminae, whose counting was used to establish age–depth relationships. Fast and slowly growing stalagmites have different stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions as well as trace element contents that could be attributed to differences in drip water migration pathways. The stable isotope compositions were compared with meteorological data of the last ∼100 years indicating that carbon isotope compositions of the stalagmites may reflect changes in precipitation amount, while oxygen isotope compositions are more related to temperature variations. The combined textural–geochemical–meteorological interpretation lead us to select the isotope record that can best reflect variations in environmental conditions and can be used for further evaluation of the climate–proxy relationships.

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