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  • Author or Editor: Á. Cseh x
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The effects of different Temperature Humidity Index (THI) values in cold, hot and El Niño (EN) climates on superovulation and embryo production were analysed on Holstein Friesian donor cows. There were significant differences in the THI among the three climates. The average temperature in the EN period was 6°C higher than in the summer period of the previous 30 years. The number of corpora lutea (CL) and embryos were log- and back-transformed, Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test was used for normality and Lilliefors test was applied for significance. In the cold season THI was 70.74 ± 1.35 and the average number of CL was 9.84 ± 4.37. In the hot season the THI was 73.99 ± 0.72 and the average number of CL was 9.70 ± 4.49. When the THI, in the EN period, increased up to 79.74 ± 4.01, the superovulation response was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced (average number of CL = 5.22 ± 2.53). The embryo production result showed a similar tendency. In the hot period the average number of embryos obtained was 5.87 ± 2.98. However, in the EN period it decreased to 4.21 ± 2.05. Higher temperature reduced embryo quality. The proportion of live embryos (%) was 59.2 ± 37.4 in the cold and 38.2 ± 38.5 in the EN periods of the year (P < 0.01). However, ovarian sensitiveness showed adaptation to summer environment while the heat stress, which was more severe in the EN period, negatively affected the superovulation response and embryo production.

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Skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement is a simple, noninvasive method to assess tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE). In patients with end-stage renal disease and in those on hemodialysis AGE production is increased. Less is known about those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study we tested if SAF is influenced by clinical and treatment characteristics in PD patients.This cross-sectional study included 198 PD patients (of those, 128 were on traditional glucose-based solutions and 70 patients were partially switched to icodextrin-based PD). SAF measurements were done with a specific AGE Reader device. The impact of patients’ age, gender, current diabetes, duration of PD, cumulative glucose exposure, body mass index, smoking habits and use of icodextrin on SAF values were tested with multiple regression analysis.Our analysis revealed that patients’ age, current diabetes and icodextrin use significantly increase patients’ SAF values (p = 0.015, 0.012, 0.005, respectively). AGE exposure of PD patients with diabetes and on icodextrin solution is increased. Further investigation is required whether this finding is due to the icodextrin itself or for a still unspecified clinical characteristic of PD population treated with icodextrin.

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Abstract  

A non-destructive activation analytical method developed for the determination of the axial concentration distributions of Al, Si and K residual additives in sintered tungsten rods is briefly described. A 14 MeV neutron generator is used to produce the reactions27Al(n, p)27Mg,28Si(n, p)28Al and39K(n, 2n)38K and the activities are compared with standards. A weighted least-squares fitting program is used for peak area determination of the scintillation spectra. A scheme of the irradiating and measuring arrangement with a pneumatic sample-transfer system is presented. The system is applicable to large-scale routine analysis and lends itself well to automation. The results of preliminary measurements with this arrangement are given.

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Authors: E. Cseh, M. Apró, G. Bese, L. Krizbai, K. Bóka, R. Gáborjányi and A. Takács

Tomato spotted wild virus (TSWV) has become an important plant pathogen during the past 10 years in Hungary. This virus belongs to the family of Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus. According to the latest studies, this virus has about 1090 host plant species, including crops and weeds. In the autumn of 2009, some Aristolochia clematitis plants were collected showing symptoms of TSWV infection. On the basis of electron microscopic and molecular studies, leaf samples of Aristolochia clematitis L. found in a vineyard proved to be infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). This is the first report on the occurrence of TSWV in Aristolochia in Hungary.

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The 4H(4D) wheat/barley substitution line was crossed with the ‘Chinese Spring’ ph1b mutant genotype in order to induce wheat-barley homoeologous recombinations. F3 and F4 seeds of the 4H(4D) × ‘Chinese Spring’ ph1b mutant cross were analysed using genomic in situ hybridization, and a Robertsonian translocation was detected in monosomic form. Disomic centric fusions were selected among the self-fertilized progenies. The presence of the long arm of 4H was confirmed with SSR markers. The long arm of the 5D wheat chromosome in the Robertsonian translocation was identified using fluorescent in situ hybridization with the help of three DNA probes: pSc119.2, Afa family and pTa71. The wheat/barley centric fusion was identified as a 4HL.5DL translocation. This line exhibited supernumerary spikelet character, but the number of seeds/plant did not increase. The 4HL.5DL centric fusion line is suitable genetic material to study the expression of genes located on 4HL in a wheat genetic background.

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Authors: E. Horváth, J. Kristóf, R. Frost, Á. Rédey, V. Vágvölgyi and T. Cseh

Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of halloysite fully expanded with hydrazine-hydrate has been investigated in nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating and at a constant, pre-set decomposition rate of 0.15 mg min-1. Under controlled-rate thermal analysis (CRTA) conditions it was possible to resolve the closely overlapping decomposition stages and to distinguish between adsorbed and bonded reagent. Three types of bonded reagent could be identified. The loosely bonded reagent amounting to 0.20 mol hydrazine-hydrate per mol inner surface hydroxyl is connected to the internal and external surfaces of the expanded mineral and is present as a space filler between the sheets of the delaminated mineral. The strongly bonded (intercalated) hydrazine-hydrate is connected to the kaolinite inner surface OH groups by the formation of hydrogen bonds. Based on the thermoanalytical results two different types of bonded reagent could be distinguished in the complex. Type 1 reagent (approx. 0.06 mol hydrazine-hydrate/mol inner surface OH) is liberated between 77 and 103C. Type 2 reagent is lost between 103 and 227C, corresponding to a quantity of 0.36 mol hydrazine/mol inner surface OH. When heating the complex to 77C under CRTA conditions a new reflection appears in the XRD pattern with a d-value of 9.6 , in addition to the 10.2 Ĺ reflection. This new reflection disappears in contact with moist air and the complex re-expands to the original d-value of 10.2 in a few h. The appearance of the 9.6 reflection is interpreted as the expansion of kaolinite with hydrazine alone, while the 10.2 one is due to expansion with hydrazine-hydrate. FTIR (DRIFT) spectroscopic results showed that the treated mineral after intercalation/deintercalation and heat treatment to 300C is slightly more ordered than the original (untreated) clay.

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Authors: N. Eszes, A. Bohács, Á. Cseh, G. Toldi, A. Bikov, I. Ivancsó, V. Müller, I. Horváth, J. Rigó, B. Vásárhelyi, Gy Losonczy and Lilla Tamási

Asthmatic inflammation during pregnancy poses a risk for maternal and fetal morbidities. Circulating T cell immune phenotype is known to correlate with airway inflammation (detectable by fractional concentration of nitric oxide present in exhaled breath (FENO)) in non-pregnant allergic asthmatics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of peripheral T cell phenotype to FENO and clinical variables of asthma during pregnancy.We examined 22 pregnant women with allergic asthma in the 2nd/3rd trimester. The prevalence of Th1, Th2, regulatory T (Treg) and natural killer (NK) cell subsets was identified with flow cytometry using cell-specific markers. FENO, Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score and lung function were evaluated.Peripheral blood Th1, Th2, Treg, and NK cell prevalence were not significantly correlated to airway inflammation assessed by FENO in asthmatic pregnant women (all cells p > 0.05; study power > 75%). However, an inverse correlation was detected between Th2 cell prevalence and ACT total scores (p = 0.03) in asthmatic pregnancy.Blunted relationship between T cell profile and airway inflammation may be the result of pregnancy induced immune tolerance in asthmatic pregnancy. On the other hand, increased Th2 response impairs disease control that supports direct relationship between symptoms and cellular mechanisms of asthma during pregnancy.

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Authors: Margit Kulcsár, Gabriella Dankó, Carole Delavaud, C. Mircu, Anna J. Nikolic, A. Gáspárdy, H. Cernescu, Y. Chilliard, S. Cseh, P. Rudas and Gy. Huszenicza

Ketosis was diagnosed in a flock of Merino ewes that conceived from synchronised oestrus in the early autumn period. On day 140 of pregnancy the ewes were sampled for determination of βOH-butyrate (BHB), AST, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol (TCH), insulin, T4, T3, cortisol, IGF-1 and leptin. The results were evaluated according to the number of fetuses born some days later and the presence of hyperketonaemia (BHB: ≥ 1.60 mmol/l). In May, about 3 months after lambing, cyclic ovarian function was induced (Cronolone + eCG), and the ewes were inseminated artificially (AI) 48 h after the removal of gestagen-containing sponge. At the time of AI and 10 days later blood samples were collected again to check the plasma levels of the same constituents as previously (in samples taken at AI), and to monitor the ovarian response by assaying progesterone (in both samples). On day 140 of gestation significantly lower BHB levels were detected in dams with single (n = 41) than in those with twin (n = 57) pregnancies. Hyperketonaemia was found only in ewes bearing twins (n = 27). These animals had higher NEFA and cortisol, and lower TCH, insulin, IGF-1, leptin and T3 levels than their normoketonaemic twin-bearing flock-mates, and those with single pregnancy. The blood glucose concentrations varied within a wide range, and the means of groups did not exhibit any significant differences. The formerly hyperketonaemic individuals were characterised by lower leptin level 3 months after lambing, and they showed a poorer response to the cycle-induction procedure than the others. The non-responders had lower IGF-1 and leptin levels than those ovulated after this treatment. It was concluded that the subclinical form of ovine ketosis is characterised by complex endocrine alterations, reflecting an obvious form of negative energy balance. If attempts to induce cyclic ovarian function outside the breeding season are made soon after lambing, the ovarian response and fertility of these ewes may also be depressed.

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