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  • Author or Editor: Á. Ghidán x
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Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

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Mutations in the HIV-1 genes associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs were detected also in primary HIV infected individuals who did not receive antiretroviral treatment. Drug resistance genotyping of HIV pol gene was done by in situ DNA hybridization using a Line Probe Assay and by direct sequencing. Viral variants harbouring resistance mutations such as: M41, T69R, K70R, M184V, T215Y in the pol gene were detected in 14% of the subjects. HIV mutants resistant to NRT inhibitors were found in 10 and 20% of patients infected before and after the year 2000, respectively. Multiple drug resistant viruses (2–3 drug classes) were present in 3.5% of the mainly recently infected patients. In protease gene only minor resistant mutations were found such as L10I and A71V.These findings indicate the evolution of drug resistance showing a correlation with the time of introduction of combination therapy in our country, where more than 70% of HIV infections were by homo/bisexual transmission.This confirms the transmission of drug-resistant HIV shown by genotype testing during primary infection in therapy-naive patients and initiates serious clinical and public health consequences.

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The third most frequent agent of perinatal bacterial meningitis is Listeria monocytogenes , in Hungary, its occurrence is, however, uncommon. This raises the possibility of diagnostical mistakes. A connatal listeriosis case validated microbiologically referred to in this report calls attention to Listeria, as a rare but relevant pathogen of neonatal infections. If clinical background suggests infection, the pathogenic role of L. monocytogenes should be taken in consideration. The etiological significance of the agent has to be verified by a competent clinical microbiology laboratory, since maternal listeriosis should be treated and the serious connatal manifestations should be prevented. Epidemiology of perinatal infection by L. monocytogenes , and its diagnostic tools especially the use of selective media are discussed.

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A study was conducted to compare the DNA structure of Streptococcus mutans strains in children with caries-active, caries-free, and gingivitis clinical diagnosis. Twenty-eight Streptococcus mutans strains from 100 children’s plaques were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The classified strains were closely related to one another, though the strains originated from different disease groups. Three identical pairs were found, but the pairs in two cases belonged to different disease groups.The results of the PFGE experiments suggest that there is no correlation between the different DNA patterns of S. mutans strains and their cariogenecity. So the different DNA strains of S. mutans are not the only determining factor in the development of dental caries.

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Mutations in the HIV-1 pol gene associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs in therapy-naïve Hungarian individuals transmitted as primary infection by their foreign sexual partners originated from African, Asian and other European countries had been analyzed. Drug resistance genotyping of HIV RT and PR genes were performed where mutations of 72 codons — among them 64 specific resistance codons representing 6 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTIs), 2 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) and 6 proteinase inhibitor (PRIs) drugs — had been analyzed by Truegene HIV-1 Genotyping kit and OpenGene Sequencing System. Viral variants harboring resistance mutations in the po l gene were detected in 14% of the subjects. The highest rate of resistance to a single class of inhibitors was detected towards PR inhibitors (12%), followed by NRTI (8%) and NNRTI (5%). On the contrary, 25% of viruses transmitted by homosexual activity contained mutations led to resistance to NNRT. Viruses from 11 percent of cases were resistant to 2 classes of inhibitors, and 7 percent to three classes of inhibitors. Based upon sequence data non-B subtypes and CRFs were detected in more than 71% of cases. HIV-1 C (10.7%), HIV-F1 (7.2%) and HIV-1 G (3.6%) were detected as the more frequent subtypes. Among the HIV-1 recombinant viruses CRF02_AG variants were found more frequently (28.5%) followed by CRF06_cpx (17.8%) indicating penetration of non-B subtypes and recombinant African variants into Hungary, which raises serious clinical and public health consequences.

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In this report we examined the glycopeptide susceptibility of enterococci, isolated in 2005, from slaughtered animals, within the confines of Hungarian Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System. We determined the presence of the van genes as well as their genetic relatedness in enterococci from poultry. Enterococcus sp. strains (n = 175) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered poultry in 2005. The origin of the samples was registered at county level. After screening the strains with 30 mg vancomycin disc 19 (86%) intermediate resistant and 4 (3%) fully resistant strains were found. The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-values among 23 enterococcus strains which were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin were 0.25 mg/L (4.4%), 2 mg/L (8.6%), 4 mg/L (8.6%), 8 mg/L (61%), 16 mg/L (8.6%) and 256 mg/L (8.6%). The MICs of teicoplanin were 0.25 mg/L (4.3%), 1 (8.6%), 4 mg/L (78.3%), 16 mg/L (4.3%) and 256 mg/L (4.3%). The two most vancomycin-resistant strains were vanA carriers (1 E. faecalis and 1 E. faecium ).The farms that produced these strains can be reservoirs of VRE and the affected farms should change the technology of disinfection and breeding in order to prevent the emergence of high numbers of human VRE isolates in Hungary.

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A 19-year-old man had been admitted to the Hospital because of septic shock and large scale suffusions all over the body. The pathogen had proved to be Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. In his stabilization period two superinfectious attacks arose. One of them was a bacteremia, caused by a vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium. The second was a wound infection in his deep colliquating necrotised tissue of the heel. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF) was isolated from this lesion with some Gram-negative oppurtunistic pathogens. The strain contained the vanA gene. After systemic and topical treatment, furthermore plastic surgical interventions the patient recovered. This is the second report on VREF from Hungary colonizing/infecting a patient with an underlying disease.

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