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This paper presents the principles of a new inversion method used for the determination of 3D geological structures. The horizontal variations of the layer parameters i.e. layer thicknesses and resistivities are discretized in the form of series expansion. The unknown coefficients of the series expansion are determined by an iterative linearized inversion method using weights specified by the Most Frequent Value Method (MFV). The result of the inversion is estimated from the data of the bi-directional VES (Vertical Electric Sounding) measurements with Schlumberger array in each profile and in multiple profiles. A 3D Finite Difference method was applied to forward modelling, however, the structure is approximated along the profile with a 2D model discretized by single-variable series expansion. The 3D forward modeling procedure gives the opportunity to calculate data measured in two or multiple directions. The suggested interpretation method gives an approximate solution. Proceeding more accurate 3D inversion will be provided by the binary series expansion.

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Digital seed image analysis of seed remains of three ancient vinegrape samples excavated from 15th-century sites of Hungary was conducted and compared to those of ten currently grown old grapevine varieties. Digital seed images were analysed by Fovea Pro 4.0 computer program, with the final aim to identify the ancient grapevine cultivars with a final genotype reconstruction. Discriminant analysis, XY plot and histogram analyses revealed that seeds of two archaeological samples (11–13) show the closest similarity to the currently grown old vinegrape Vitis v. vinifera cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6). Histogram analysis of seed parameter Equiv.Diam. (cm) of the archaeological seed sample ‘Budai vár’ (sample 11) showed diverse multimodal distribution compared to the unimodal distribution of cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6), which results indicated that cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ went through a selection through the last five centuries, which narrowed the morphological diversity of this seed character.

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Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a family of clonal disorders characterized by dyshematopoiesis and susceptibility to acute myelogenous leukemia. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) are cytokines that play key roles in the pathogenesis of MDS. There have been several reports on the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the DNA sequence encoding the leader sequence of the TGF-b 1 protein, and in the -308 promoter region of TNF-a. The association between TNF-a and TGF-b 1 gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to MDS and the progression of the disease was investigated. As compared with healthy control subjects (n = 74), patients with MDS (n = 55) showed no significant deviations in genotype or allele frequencies of TNF-a. Similarly, there were no differences in the distribution of TNF-a genotypes between the MDS patients with only anemia (mild group) and those with bi- or pancytopenia (severe group). On the other hand the TT homozygosity at codon 10 in exon 1 of TGF-b 1 gene was associated with a severe degree of cytopenia [95% CI OR = 4.889, p = 0.0071]. These findings suggest that the investigated genetic polymorphisms do not predispose to the development of MDS, but that TGF-b 1 gene polymorphism may affect the disease progression.

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A new L 2 norm joint inversion technique is presented and combined with the series expansion inversion method applied for different simulated erroneous Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) data sets over a complicated two dimensional structure. The applied joint inversion technique takes into consideration the complete form of the likelihood function. As a result there is no need to apply input weights to the individual objective functions. The model consists of three layers with homogeneous resistivities. The first layer boundary is a horizontal plane, the other is a two dimensional laterally varying surface. For the VES inversion the exact data sets were calculated by finite difference method, one in strike direction and the other in dip direction. These data sets were contaminated with normally distributed random errors. During inversion the second layer boundary function was determined. For comparison individual and joint inversion examples were calculated for the two data sets. The best model parameter estimate result was produced by the method of automated weighting.

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Objectives: The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of TNF-a -308 polymorphism among the 29 members of a family with RA and the association between the MHC-linked biallelic HSP70-2 gene and the TNF-a polymorphism. Five of the members with RA were diagnosed by using the revised 1987 ACR criteria, and 1 member suffered from SLE. Methods: The variations in the TNF-a and the HSP70-2 genotypes were analyzed by PCR-RFLP, using NcoI and PstI restriction enzymes. Results: Two of the 29 members were homozygotes for allele A, 18 were heterozygotes (TNF A/G) and 9 of them were homozygotes for allele G. Nineteen of the 29 were heterozygotes for HSP70-2 (A/G), 10 of them were homozygotes for the G allele, and none were homozygotes for allele A. Four of the 5 the RA patients carried the A allele for TNF-a all 5 were heterozygotes for HSP70-2 genotypes. Conclusion: The carriage of the A allele for TNF-a of -308 SNP in 4 of the 5 RA patients, and the high prevalence (68.0%) of TNF A allele carriers in this family confirms the important role of this candidate gene in the pathomechanism of RA, and might be of prognostic value for future clinical observations. Further, to test for association a much larger set of genetically independent patients and controls is needed. 

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Abstract  

A measuring technique based on the alpha particles being released from the10B(n, α) nuclear reaction and using the time-of-flight technique at a periodically pulsing reactor was developed. Non-destructive determination for the range distribution of boron impurities in ion-implanted silicon have been performed. Projected ranges obtained in the energy region 20–80 keV are compared to calculated results and to other experiments. Examples are shown for some typical boron distributions before and after annealing the sample.

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Total mineral uptake capacity of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. giromontiina) grown in an experimental field at Gödöllő was studied. The mineral content of the soil (brown acidic sandy forest soil) showed unexpectedly high content (mg kg−1 DW) of Ba (95.5), Cr (32.9), Ni (27.8), Pb (15.4) and Zn (53.3). Boron (B) concentration of the soil was relatively low (7.1 mg kg−1 DW), but its bioaccumulation content in root, (2.5) shoot, (33.1) and leaf (50.1) tissues of the plant (mg kg−1 DW). Zinc (Zn) was also bioaccumulated in the plant with contents (mg kg−1 DW) of 47.1 (roots), 23.0 (shoots) and 56.1 (leaves) as compared with 53.3 (in the soil). Toxic element exclusion was observed in zucchini (mg kg−1 DW) concerning Ba (29.0), Co (0.2), Cr (5.3), Ni (5.8) and Pb (3.4) measured in the roots when compared with their concentrations in the soil: Ba (95.5), Co (10.2), Cr (32.9), Ni (27.8) and Pb (15.4). In silico sequence analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of aquaporins (NIP, TIP, SIP and Si-TRP), boron-exporters (BOR), and rbcL of cpDNA revealed plant species with high sequence similarities to the sequences of Cucurbits, which predicted additional plants with intensive mineral (B and Zn) uptake capacity, similar to Cucurbits with phytoextraction potential.

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Abstract  

It is demonstrated that the information obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling technique can substantially help in the construction of a realistic optical model for the ellipsometry of ion-implanted silicon. In the case of fully amorphous ion-bombarded layers, the ellipsometry is a fast, non-destructive and contactless method to estimate the thickness of these films. For buried and partially disordered layers a qualitative interpretation of different trajectories in the - plance can be given on the basis of channeling measurements.

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As DNA methylation patterns are inherited (‘epigenetic memory’) gsh I transgenic poplar ( Populus × canescens ) clones (11 ggs and 6 Lgl ) were treated with the DNA demethylating drug DHAC (5,6-dihydro-5′-azacytidine hydrochloride) at 10 −4 M for 7 days in order to study acquired plant molecular defense mechanisms in novel plant sources. In this study, the response of relative gene expression levels of transgene gsh I and poplar gene gsh 1 to DHAC treatment were analyzed by qRT-PCR ( q uantitative r everse t ranscriptase PCR). High expression levels of transgene gsh I were observed in the 6 Lgl clone (13.5-fold increase) compared to 11 ggs (1.0) sample. The expression level doubled (1.8-fold increase) in the DHAC-treated 6 Lgl samples but not in the 11 ggs clone (0.4-fold). Contrary to this, the relative copy number of transgene gsh I in the 6 Lgl clone was found to be 60% less (1.0) than in the 11 ggs sample (1.6). Relative expression level of endogenous poplar gene gsh 1 showed significantly higher responsiveness to DHAC-induced demethylation than the transgene gsh I with the highest expression level in the untransformed WT poplar (19.7-fold increase) compared to transformed clones of 6 Lgl (8.7-fold increase) and 11 ggs (2.5-fold increase), respectively. Competition in the reactivation capacity between transgene gsh I and poplar gsh 1 of 6 Lgl clone was also observed as the relative gene expression level of transgene gsh I increased from a high relative expression level (13.5) up by about twofold (1.8 times) rate (to 23.7) compared to poplar gsh 1 gene that increased by an 8.7 increment from a lower level (1.6 rel. expression) to 13.9.

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Nanopages
Authors: E. Zsolt Horváth, A. Antal Koós, Krisztián Kertész, Zofia Vértesy, György Molnár, Mária Ádám, Csaba Dücső, József Gyulai, and P. László Biró

Gas sensing properties of different carbon nanotube (mostly multiwall, MWCNT) mats, based on electrical resistance measurement were investigated in a simple arrangement and found that the sensitivity for different gases or vapors highly depends on the pre-treatment and functionalization of nanotubes. The selectivity of the sensing was demonstrated by building a vapor recognition system based on an array of multitube sensors made of differently functionalized MWCNTs.

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