The aim of this study was to adapt MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay (MCA) (Wang et al., 2010) for determination of lactic acid bacteria cell count. Our study is helpful in developing protocols for measuring the viability of other lactic acid bacteria. We determined the cell concentration range which gives linear regression of CFU (colony forming units) and formazan production. In our experiment three authentic lactic acid bacteria strains were investigated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1, L. plantarum 2142, and L. sakei DSM 2001. As data show beside the strain also the growth medium has influence on the MTT reduction activity, this means that for each special case separate calibration curve has to be prepared. Based on MTT reduction we also developed an improved microtiter plate assay which proved to be reliable for a rapid cell count determination. So our methods are only applicable for estimate cell number with fixed parameters, but under given circumstances they are fast and sensitive methods. With the modified methods we can rapidly measure the dehydrogenase enzyme activity of the lactic acid bacteria cells. With the microplate assay we can measure many conditions and strains at the same time.
In this paper we wish to present the numerical model elaborated in order to simulate some physical phenomena that influence the general deterioration of steel, whether hot dip galvanized or not, in reinforced concrete. We describe the physical and mathematical models, establishing the corresponding equation system, the initial and boundary conditions. We have also presented the numeric model associated to the mathematical model and the numeric methods of discretization and solution of the differential equations system that describes the mathematical model.
The influence of hot dip galvanizing on the rebar/concrete adherence was studied. The kinetics of rebars corrosion in high chlorides content concrete was studied by electrochemical methods. Unprotected (black steel) and hot dip galvanized steel were studied. The results show a mechanical resistance improvement of reinforced concrete with hot dip galvanized rebars and a better corrosion performance of hot dip galvanized steel in concrete compared to the black steel.
The transportation of rainbow trout in the presence of the anesthetic clove oil was investigated. Before the transportation tests, an acute experiment was conducted to verify that removal of the fish from the water for one minute does not significantly increase the glucose or cortisol concentration of the blood plasma. In the main experiment two different transportation conditions were compared: transport in water only and in water with anesthetic. During transportation without addition of clove oil, blood plasma glucose and cortisol concentrations changed significantly. The concentration of glucose increased from 4.92 mmol/L prior to transportation to 6.16 mmol/L and values similar to the initial ones (4.95 mmol/L) were observed 5 hours after transportation. Concentration of the stress hormone cortisol increased from the initial 37.2 ng/mL to 89.2 ng/mL and returned to a value of 36.1 ng/mL 3 hours post transportation. Respective values of glucose concentration have not changed significantly during transportation in the presence of clove oil (4.3; 4.4; 4.4 mmol/L), whereas those of cortisol showed a slight decrease with the passing of time (28.1; 26.7; 20.18 ng/mL). Results show that transportation stress can significantly be reduced by the use of anesthetics.
The aim of present study was to survey the fatty acid composition and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillet captured in five different fish farms located in Hungary. Lipid peroxidation characteristics (conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels) were also determined in fish muscle. Data on fatty acid composition of common carp has shown that different methods of rearing and feeding cause significant differences in the proportions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of this fish species. According to present results, it seems that the feeding practice of the last month before capture has determined the fatty acid profile of fillet, therefore the technology of carp nutrition should be divided into two main periods: first a growth and weight gain period; and a second one when the nutritional quality of the fillet composition can be improved.
Hungarian pond fish production is based on grains, but in the last few years, new ideas and efforts have appeared to intensify carp production technology. The basic objective was to change grain-based feeding to nutritionally complete feeds, which ensure rapid growth and more efficient feed conversion rates. This study aimed to utilise empty ponds during the summer period for carp production. Thus, there is no need for fish producers to catch fish in large ponds at the operating water level to satisfy smaller market demands appearing during the summer.
The other aim was to compare the meat quality of fish raised on traditional and nutritionally complete feed until market size in the last year of production. Fatty acid profile and the levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fillets were specified, and their ratios were analysed. The result showed that nutritionally complete feed with different fatty acid composition affects the fatty acid composition of carp fillet during the rearing period. Quality of the fillet of carp fed with higher unsaturated fatty acid content became more favourable to the consumers due to health promoting effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules – known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers – are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.
The increasing consumer demand for less processed and more natural food products – while improving those products’ quality, safety, and shelf-life – has raised the necessity of chemical preservative replacement. Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Chitinolytic enzymes are of biotechnological interest, since their substrate, chitin, is a major structural component of the cell wall of fungi, which are the main cause of the spoilage of food and raw plant material. Among the several organisms, many bacteria produce chitinolytic enzymes, however, this behaviour is not general. The chitinase activity of the lactic acid bacteria is scarcely known and studied.
The aim of the present study was to select Lactobacillus strains that have genes encoding chitinase, furthermore, to detect expressed enzymes and to characterise their chitinase activity. Taking into consideration the importance of chitin-bindig proteins (CBPs) in the chitinase activity, CBPs were also examined. Five Lactobacillus strains out of 43 strains from 12 different species were selected by their chitinase coding gene. The presence of the chitinase and chitin-biding protein production were confirmed, however, no chitinolytic activity has been identified.